Yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of ground cumin seed oil fractions obtained at different time points during the hydrodistillation

Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Santosh Shiwakoti, Tess Astatkie, Ivan Salamon, Daniela Grul’Ová, Silvia Mudrencekova, Vicki Schlegel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is an important essential oil (EO), medicinal, and spice plant from family Apiaceae. Cumin seed EO has wide applications in the food, liquor, pharmaceutical, and aromatherapy industries, and is extracted via steam or hydrodistillation of either whole or ground seed. The hypothesis of this study was that by capturing oil eluted at different timeframes during the hydrodistillation process (HDP), we could obtain oils of differential composition and bioactivity. The objective was to evaluate the EO fractions captured at different timeframes of the HDP. In this study, we collected nine different EO fractions following nine hydrodistillation time (HDT) frames: 0–2, 2–7, 7–15, 15–30, 30–45, 45– 75, 75–105, 105–135, and 135–165 minutes. In addition, continuous HDT of 165 minutes was conducted as a control and the complete cumin seed oil was collected at the end of this time. HDT significantly affected the concentrations of the following constituents in the oil (as percentage of total oil): α-pinene (0.2% to 2.1%), β-pinene (5% to 35.8%), mycrene (0.3% to 1.7%), para-cymene (12.0% to 26.4%), γ-terpinene (4.8%to 25.9%), cumin aldehyde (3.8% to 51.1%), α-terpinen-7-al (0.2% to 11.2%), and γ-terpinen-7-al (1.3% to 13.1%). Some of the constituents were eluted early in the HDP and were highest in the oil fraction collected at the beginning of the HDP, others were highest in the fractions collected midway in the HDP, and another group of constituents were eluted later and were the highest in the oil fractions collected during the last HDT (135–165 minutes). Due to their altered chemical composition, the oil fractions expressed different antioxidant capacities; the one eluted at 105–135 minutes HDT had the greatest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values. The ORAC values were positively correlated to the concentration of cumin aldehyde (0.962), α-terpinene (0.889) and γ-terpinene (0.717), which suggest that these compounds in cumin oil may be responsible for the measured antioxidant capacity. This study demonstrated that cumin oil with dissimilar chemical profile and antioxidant activity could be obtained from the same batch of seed by capturing oils at different timeframes during the same HDP. The resulting products (EO fractions) could have diverse industrial, medical, and environmental applications. The method for cumin seed grinding and EOextraction described in this study could be used by industry to reduce energy inputs and oil losses, and for fast oil extraction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1213-1217
Number of pages5
JournalHortScience
Volume50
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2015

Fingerprint

cumin
seed oils
antioxidants
oils
essential oils
oxygen radical absorbance capacity
seeds
aldehydes
hydrodistillation
distilled spirits
Cuminum cyminum
industry
Apiaceae
grinding
spices
steam

Keywords

  • Cumin aldehyde
  • Cuminum cyminum
  • G-terpinene
  • ORAC
  • Para-cymene
  • β-pinene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Horticulture

Cite this

Zheljazkov, V. D., Shiwakoti, S., Astatkie, T., Salamon, I., Grul’Ová, D., Mudrencekova, S., & Schlegel, V. (2015). Yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of ground cumin seed oil fractions obtained at different time points during the hydrodistillation. HortScience, 50(8), 1213-1217.

Yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of ground cumin seed oil fractions obtained at different time points during the hydrodistillation. / Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Shiwakoti, Santosh; Astatkie, Tess; Salamon, Ivan; Grul’Ová, Daniela; Mudrencekova, Silvia; Schlegel, Vicki.

In: HortScience, Vol. 50, No. 8, 01.08.2015, p. 1213-1217.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zheljazkov, VD, Shiwakoti, S, Astatkie, T, Salamon, I, Grul’Ová, D, Mudrencekova, S & Schlegel, V 2015, 'Yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of ground cumin seed oil fractions obtained at different time points during the hydrodistillation', HortScience, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1213-1217.
Zheljazkov VD, Shiwakoti S, Astatkie T, Salamon I, Grul’Ová D, Mudrencekova S et al. Yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of ground cumin seed oil fractions obtained at different time points during the hydrodistillation. HortScience. 2015 Aug 1;50(8):1213-1217.
Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. ; Shiwakoti, Santosh ; Astatkie, Tess ; Salamon, Ivan ; Grul’Ová, Daniela ; Mudrencekova, Silvia ; Schlegel, Vicki. / Yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of ground cumin seed oil fractions obtained at different time points during the hydrodistillation. In: HortScience. 2015 ; Vol. 50, No. 8. pp. 1213-1217.
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abstract = "Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is an important essential oil (EO), medicinal, and spice plant from family Apiaceae. Cumin seed EO has wide applications in the food, liquor, pharmaceutical, and aromatherapy industries, and is extracted via steam or hydrodistillation of either whole or ground seed. The hypothesis of this study was that by capturing oil eluted at different timeframes during the hydrodistillation process (HDP), we could obtain oils of differential composition and bioactivity. The objective was to evaluate the EO fractions captured at different timeframes of the HDP. In this study, we collected nine different EO fractions following nine hydrodistillation time (HDT) frames: 0–2, 2–7, 7–15, 15–30, 30–45, 45– 75, 75–105, 105–135, and 135–165 minutes. In addition, continuous HDT of 165 minutes was conducted as a control and the complete cumin seed oil was collected at the end of this time. HDT significantly affected the concentrations of the following constituents in the oil (as percentage of total oil): α-pinene (0.2{\%} to 2.1{\%}), β-pinene (5{\%} to 35.8{\%}), mycrene (0.3{\%} to 1.7{\%}), para-cymene (12.0{\%} to 26.4{\%}), γ-terpinene (4.8{\%}to 25.9{\%}), cumin aldehyde (3.8{\%} to 51.1{\%}), α-terpinen-7-al (0.2{\%} to 11.2{\%}), and γ-terpinen-7-al (1.3{\%} to 13.1{\%}). Some of the constituents were eluted early in the HDP and were highest in the oil fraction collected at the beginning of the HDP, others were highest in the fractions collected midway in the HDP, and another group of constituents were eluted later and were the highest in the oil fractions collected during the last HDT (135–165 minutes). Due to their altered chemical composition, the oil fractions expressed different antioxidant capacities; the one eluted at 105–135 minutes HDT had the greatest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values. The ORAC values were positively correlated to the concentration of cumin aldehyde (0.962), α-terpinene (0.889) and γ-terpinene (0.717), which suggest that these compounds in cumin oil may be responsible for the measured antioxidant capacity. This study demonstrated that cumin oil with dissimilar chemical profile and antioxidant activity could be obtained from the same batch of seed by capturing oils at different timeframes during the same HDP. The resulting products (EO fractions) could have diverse industrial, medical, and environmental applications. The method for cumin seed grinding and EOextraction described in this study could be used by industry to reduce energy inputs and oil losses, and for fast oil extraction.",
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T1 - Yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of ground cumin seed oil fractions obtained at different time points during the hydrodistillation

AU - Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.

AU - Shiwakoti, Santosh

AU - Astatkie, Tess

AU - Salamon, Ivan

AU - Grul’Ová, Daniela

AU - Mudrencekova, Silvia

AU - Schlegel, Vicki

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N2 - Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is an important essential oil (EO), medicinal, and spice plant from family Apiaceae. Cumin seed EO has wide applications in the food, liquor, pharmaceutical, and aromatherapy industries, and is extracted via steam or hydrodistillation of either whole or ground seed. The hypothesis of this study was that by capturing oil eluted at different timeframes during the hydrodistillation process (HDP), we could obtain oils of differential composition and bioactivity. The objective was to evaluate the EO fractions captured at different timeframes of the HDP. In this study, we collected nine different EO fractions following nine hydrodistillation time (HDT) frames: 0–2, 2–7, 7–15, 15–30, 30–45, 45– 75, 75–105, 105–135, and 135–165 minutes. In addition, continuous HDT of 165 minutes was conducted as a control and the complete cumin seed oil was collected at the end of this time. HDT significantly affected the concentrations of the following constituents in the oil (as percentage of total oil): α-pinene (0.2% to 2.1%), β-pinene (5% to 35.8%), mycrene (0.3% to 1.7%), para-cymene (12.0% to 26.4%), γ-terpinene (4.8%to 25.9%), cumin aldehyde (3.8% to 51.1%), α-terpinen-7-al (0.2% to 11.2%), and γ-terpinen-7-al (1.3% to 13.1%). Some of the constituents were eluted early in the HDP and were highest in the oil fraction collected at the beginning of the HDP, others were highest in the fractions collected midway in the HDP, and another group of constituents were eluted later and were the highest in the oil fractions collected during the last HDT (135–165 minutes). Due to their altered chemical composition, the oil fractions expressed different antioxidant capacities; the one eluted at 105–135 minutes HDT had the greatest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values. The ORAC values were positively correlated to the concentration of cumin aldehyde (0.962), α-terpinene (0.889) and γ-terpinene (0.717), which suggest that these compounds in cumin oil may be responsible for the measured antioxidant capacity. This study demonstrated that cumin oil with dissimilar chemical profile and antioxidant activity could be obtained from the same batch of seed by capturing oils at different timeframes during the same HDP. The resulting products (EO fractions) could have diverse industrial, medical, and environmental applications. The method for cumin seed grinding and EOextraction described in this study could be used by industry to reduce energy inputs and oil losses, and for fast oil extraction.

AB - Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is an important essential oil (EO), medicinal, and spice plant from family Apiaceae. Cumin seed EO has wide applications in the food, liquor, pharmaceutical, and aromatherapy industries, and is extracted via steam or hydrodistillation of either whole or ground seed. The hypothesis of this study was that by capturing oil eluted at different timeframes during the hydrodistillation process (HDP), we could obtain oils of differential composition and bioactivity. The objective was to evaluate the EO fractions captured at different timeframes of the HDP. In this study, we collected nine different EO fractions following nine hydrodistillation time (HDT) frames: 0–2, 2–7, 7–15, 15–30, 30–45, 45– 75, 75–105, 105–135, and 135–165 minutes. In addition, continuous HDT of 165 minutes was conducted as a control and the complete cumin seed oil was collected at the end of this time. HDT significantly affected the concentrations of the following constituents in the oil (as percentage of total oil): α-pinene (0.2% to 2.1%), β-pinene (5% to 35.8%), mycrene (0.3% to 1.7%), para-cymene (12.0% to 26.4%), γ-terpinene (4.8%to 25.9%), cumin aldehyde (3.8% to 51.1%), α-terpinen-7-al (0.2% to 11.2%), and γ-terpinen-7-al (1.3% to 13.1%). Some of the constituents were eluted early in the HDP and were highest in the oil fraction collected at the beginning of the HDP, others were highest in the fractions collected midway in the HDP, and another group of constituents were eluted later and were the highest in the oil fractions collected during the last HDT (135–165 minutes). Due to their altered chemical composition, the oil fractions expressed different antioxidant capacities; the one eluted at 105–135 minutes HDT had the greatest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values. The ORAC values were positively correlated to the concentration of cumin aldehyde (0.962), α-terpinene (0.889) and γ-terpinene (0.717), which suggest that these compounds in cumin oil may be responsible for the measured antioxidant capacity. This study demonstrated that cumin oil with dissimilar chemical profile and antioxidant activity could be obtained from the same batch of seed by capturing oils at different timeframes during the same HDP. The resulting products (EO fractions) could have diverse industrial, medical, and environmental applications. The method for cumin seed grinding and EOextraction described in this study could be used by industry to reduce energy inputs and oil losses, and for fast oil extraction.

KW - Cumin aldehyde

KW - Cuminum cyminum

KW - G-terpinene

KW - ORAC

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KW - β-pinene

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