Writing to read: A meta-analysis of the impact of writing and writing instruction on reading

Steve Graham, Michael Hebert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

160 Scopus citations


Reading is critical to students' success in and out of school. One potential means for improving students' reading is writing. In this meta-analysis of true and quasiexperiments, Graham and Herbert present evidence that writing about material read improves students' comprehension of it; that teaching students how to write improves their reading comprehension, reading fluency, and word reading; and that increasing how much students write enhances their reading comprehension. These findings provide empirical support for long-standing beliefs about the power of writing to facilitate reading.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)710-744
Number of pages35
JournalHarvard Educational Review
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

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