White-tailed deer browsing and rubbing preferences for trees and shrubs that produce nontimber forest products

Scott E. Hygnstrom, Peter D. Skelton, Scott J. Josiah, Jason M. Gilsdorf, Dallas R. Virchow, James A. Brandle, Anil K. Jayaprakash, Kent M. Eskridge, Kurt C. VerCauteren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nontimber forest products (food, herbal medicinals, and woody floral and handicraft products) produced in forest, agroforestry, and horticultural systems can be important sources of income to landowners.White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can reduce the quality, quantity, and profitability of forest products by browsing twigs and rubbing stems, resulting in direct and indirect losses to production enterprises.We evaluated deer damage (frequency and intensity of browsing and rubbing) sustained by 26 species of trees and shrubs, the relationships among morphological features of trees and shrubs to damage levels, and the economic impacts of deer damage on the production of nontimber forest products.Levels of browsing were high (frequency >93% and intensity >50%) in most species of trees and shrubs, with the highest intensity (>60%) occurring in chinese chestnut (Castanea mollisima) and dogwood (Cornus spp.),and the lowest (<20%) in ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba),curly willow (Salix matsudana),'Scarlet urls'curly willow, smooth sumac (Rhus glabra),and pussy willow (Salix caprea).Species of trees or shrubs with one or a few stout stems unprotected by dense branching [e.g.,american elderberry (Sambucus canadensis),smooth sumac, and curly willow] sustained the most damage by rubbing.Trees and shrubs with many small diameter stems or with dense tangled branching [e.g.redozier dogwood (Cornus sericea),forsythia (Forsythia suspensa),'Flame' willow (Salix alba),and 'Streamco' basket willow (Salix purpurea)] were damaged the least by rubbing.Annual economic costs of deer damage to producers of nontimber forest products can range from $26/acre for pussy willow to $1595/acre for curly willow.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)204-211
Number of pages8
JournalHortTechnology
Volume19
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2009

Fingerprint

nontimber forest products
browsing
Odocoileus virginianus
shrubs
Sambucus canadensis
deer
stems
branching
Rhus glabra
Cornus sericea
Forsythia suspensa
Salix matsudana
Forsythia
Salix caprea
Cornus
Castanea mollissima
Salix alba
Salix viminalis
Ginkgo
handicrafts

Keywords

  • Agroforestry
  • Browse
  • Fruit
  • Nuts
  • Odocoileus virginianus
  • Rub damage
  • Specialty woods
  • Wildlife
  • Woody ornamentals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Horticulture

Cite this

Hygnstrom, S. E., Skelton, P. D., Josiah, S. J., Gilsdorf, J. M., Virchow, D. R., Brandle, J. A., ... VerCauteren, K. C. (2009). White-tailed deer browsing and rubbing preferences for trees and shrubs that produce nontimber forest products. HortTechnology, 19(1), 204-211.

White-tailed deer browsing and rubbing preferences for trees and shrubs that produce nontimber forest products. / Hygnstrom, Scott E.; Skelton, Peter D.; Josiah, Scott J.; Gilsdorf, Jason M.; Virchow, Dallas R.; Brandle, James A.; Jayaprakash, Anil K.; Eskridge, Kent M.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

In: HortTechnology, Vol. 19, No. 1, 01.01.2009, p. 204-211.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hygnstrom, SE, Skelton, PD, Josiah, SJ, Gilsdorf, JM, Virchow, DR, Brandle, JA, Jayaprakash, AK, Eskridge, KM & VerCauteren, KC 2009, 'White-tailed deer browsing and rubbing preferences for trees and shrubs that produce nontimber forest products', HortTechnology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 204-211.
Hygnstrom SE, Skelton PD, Josiah SJ, Gilsdorf JM, Virchow DR, Brandle JA et al. White-tailed deer browsing and rubbing preferences for trees and shrubs that produce nontimber forest products. HortTechnology. 2009 Jan 1;19(1):204-211.
Hygnstrom, Scott E. ; Skelton, Peter D. ; Josiah, Scott J. ; Gilsdorf, Jason M. ; Virchow, Dallas R. ; Brandle, James A. ; Jayaprakash, Anil K. ; Eskridge, Kent M. ; VerCauteren, Kurt C. / White-tailed deer browsing and rubbing preferences for trees and shrubs that produce nontimber forest products. In: HortTechnology. 2009 ; Vol. 19, No. 1. pp. 204-211.
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