When do people "check out" male bodies? Appearance-focus increases the objectifying gaze toward men

Philippe Bernard, Sarah J. Gervais, Arianne M. Holland, Michael D. Dodd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectification studies have mostly focused on why and how women are objectified, but relatively little is known about what drives the objectification of men. This article aims to examine the objectifying gaze toward men, which is operationalized in the present article as decreased focus on men's faces and increased focus on men's body parts (arms, chest, and stomach). We considered the role of appearance (vs. personality) focus and ideal body shape on the objectifying gaze toward men. Specifically, we instructed 65 participants (36 men) to either evaluate the appearance or the personality of men while their eyes were monitored. To assess the objectifying gaze, we examined dwell time (i.e., total time spent fixating on an area) on targets' face, arms, chest, and stomach as well as first fixation time (i.e., how quickly face, arms, and stomach were fixated relative to the onset of the image). Consistent with our main hypothesis, results indicated that appearance-focused participants looked at faces for less time and chests, arms, and stomachs for more time than personality-focused participants. Participants also looked at men's arms for more time for men's bodies with high (vs. average and low) ideal body shapes. We discus these results and their implications in the light of objectification and body perception theories.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)484-489
Number of pages6
JournalPsychology of Men and Masculinity
Volume19
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2018

Fingerprint

Arm
objectification
Stomach
Personality
personality
Thorax
Human Body
time

Keywords

  • Eye tracking
  • Impression formation
  • Objectifying gaze
  • Person perception
  • Sexual objectification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Social Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies

Cite this

When do people "check out" male bodies? Appearance-focus increases the objectifying gaze toward men. / Bernard, Philippe; Gervais, Sarah J.; Holland, Arianne M.; Dodd, Michael D.

In: Psychology of Men and Masculinity, Vol. 19, No. 3, 07.2018, p. 484-489.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{35274aaa977e4d92829c8483477f228a,
title = "When do people {"}check out{"} male bodies? Appearance-focus increases the objectifying gaze toward men",
abstract = "Objectification studies have mostly focused on why and how women are objectified, but relatively little is known about what drives the objectification of men. This article aims to examine the objectifying gaze toward men, which is operationalized in the present article as decreased focus on men's faces and increased focus on men's body parts (arms, chest, and stomach). We considered the role of appearance (vs. personality) focus and ideal body shape on the objectifying gaze toward men. Specifically, we instructed 65 participants (36 men) to either evaluate the appearance or the personality of men while their eyes were monitored. To assess the objectifying gaze, we examined dwell time (i.e., total time spent fixating on an area) on targets' face, arms, chest, and stomach as well as first fixation time (i.e., how quickly face, arms, and stomach were fixated relative to the onset of the image). Consistent with our main hypothesis, results indicated that appearance-focused participants looked at faces for less time and chests, arms, and stomachs for more time than personality-focused participants. Participants also looked at men's arms for more time for men's bodies with high (vs. average and low) ideal body shapes. We discus these results and their implications in the light of objectification and body perception theories.",
keywords = "Eye tracking, Impression formation, Objectifying gaze, Person perception, Sexual objectification",
author = "Philippe Bernard and Gervais, {Sarah J.} and Holland, {Arianne M.} and Dodd, {Michael D.}",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1037/men0000122",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "19",
pages = "484--489",
journal = "Psychology of Men and Masculinity",
issn = "1524-9220",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - When do people "check out" male bodies? Appearance-focus increases the objectifying gaze toward men

AU - Bernard, Philippe

AU - Gervais, Sarah J.

AU - Holland, Arianne M.

AU - Dodd, Michael D.

PY - 2018/7

Y1 - 2018/7

N2 - Objectification studies have mostly focused on why and how women are objectified, but relatively little is known about what drives the objectification of men. This article aims to examine the objectifying gaze toward men, which is operationalized in the present article as decreased focus on men's faces and increased focus on men's body parts (arms, chest, and stomach). We considered the role of appearance (vs. personality) focus and ideal body shape on the objectifying gaze toward men. Specifically, we instructed 65 participants (36 men) to either evaluate the appearance or the personality of men while their eyes were monitored. To assess the objectifying gaze, we examined dwell time (i.e., total time spent fixating on an area) on targets' face, arms, chest, and stomach as well as first fixation time (i.e., how quickly face, arms, and stomach were fixated relative to the onset of the image). Consistent with our main hypothesis, results indicated that appearance-focused participants looked at faces for less time and chests, arms, and stomachs for more time than personality-focused participants. Participants also looked at men's arms for more time for men's bodies with high (vs. average and low) ideal body shapes. We discus these results and their implications in the light of objectification and body perception theories.

AB - Objectification studies have mostly focused on why and how women are objectified, but relatively little is known about what drives the objectification of men. This article aims to examine the objectifying gaze toward men, which is operationalized in the present article as decreased focus on men's faces and increased focus on men's body parts (arms, chest, and stomach). We considered the role of appearance (vs. personality) focus and ideal body shape on the objectifying gaze toward men. Specifically, we instructed 65 participants (36 men) to either evaluate the appearance or the personality of men while their eyes were monitored. To assess the objectifying gaze, we examined dwell time (i.e., total time spent fixating on an area) on targets' face, arms, chest, and stomach as well as first fixation time (i.e., how quickly face, arms, and stomach were fixated relative to the onset of the image). Consistent with our main hypothesis, results indicated that appearance-focused participants looked at faces for less time and chests, arms, and stomachs for more time than personality-focused participants. Participants also looked at men's arms for more time for men's bodies with high (vs. average and low) ideal body shapes. We discus these results and their implications in the light of objectification and body perception theories.

KW - Eye tracking

KW - Impression formation

KW - Objectifying gaze

KW - Person perception

KW - Sexual objectification

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85028516798&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85028516798&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/men0000122

DO - 10.1037/men0000122

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85028516798

VL - 19

SP - 484

EP - 489

JO - Psychology of Men and Masculinity

JF - Psychology of Men and Masculinity

SN - 1524-9220

IS - 3

ER -