Using slow-release permanganate candles to remove TCE from a low permeable aquifer at a former landfill

Mark D. Christenson, Ann Kambhu, Steve D. Comfort

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Past disposal of industrial solvents into unregulated landfills is a significant source of groundwater contamination. In 2009, we began investigating a former unregulated landfill with known trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. Our objective was to pinpoint the location of the plume and treat the TCE using in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). We accomplished this by using electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to survey the landfill and map the subsurface lithology. We then used the ERI survey maps to guide direct push groundwater sampling. A TCE plume (100-600μgL-1) was identified in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer (Kh=0.5md-1) that was within 6m of ground surface. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate candles (SRPCs) that were 91.4cm long and either 5.1cm or 7.6cm in dia. For comparison, we inserted equal masses of SRPCs (7.6-cm versus 5.1-cm dia) into the low permeable aquifer in staggered rows that intersected the TCE plume. The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted using direct push rods while the 7.6-cm SRPCs were placed in 10 permanent wells. Pneumatic circulators that emitted small air bubbles were placed below the 7.6-cm SRPCs in the second year. Results 15months after installation showed significant TCE reductions in the 7.6-cm candle treatment zone (67-85%) and between 10% and 66% decrease in wells impacted by the direct push candles. These results support using slow-release permanganate candles as a means of treating chlorinated solvents in low permeable aquifers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)680-687
Number of pages8
JournalChemosphere
Volume89
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2012

Fingerprint

Waste Disposal Facilities
Trichloroethylene
Groundwater
trichloroethylene
Land fill
Aquifers
Potassium Permanganate
landfill
aquifer
Potassium
potassium
plume
electrical resistivity
Contamination
Imaging techniques
well
air bubble
groundwater
Lithology
silty clay

Keywords

  • Chlorinated solvents
  • Permanganate
  • Slow-release oxidants
  • TCE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Using slow-release permanganate candles to remove TCE from a low permeable aquifer at a former landfill. / Christenson, Mark D.; Kambhu, Ann; Comfort, Steve D.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 89, No. 6, 01.10.2012, p. 680-687.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{ed09fb0d7f3b4181bf6603c357cb2d5b,
title = "Using slow-release permanganate candles to remove TCE from a low permeable aquifer at a former landfill",
abstract = "Past disposal of industrial solvents into unregulated landfills is a significant source of groundwater contamination. In 2009, we began investigating a former unregulated landfill with known trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. Our objective was to pinpoint the location of the plume and treat the TCE using in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). We accomplished this by using electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to survey the landfill and map the subsurface lithology. We then used the ERI survey maps to guide direct push groundwater sampling. A TCE plume (100-600μgL-1) was identified in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer (Kh=0.5md-1) that was within 6m of ground surface. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate candles (SRPCs) that were 91.4cm long and either 5.1cm or 7.6cm in dia. For comparison, we inserted equal masses of SRPCs (7.6-cm versus 5.1-cm dia) into the low permeable aquifer in staggered rows that intersected the TCE plume. The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted using direct push rods while the 7.6-cm SRPCs were placed in 10 permanent wells. Pneumatic circulators that emitted small air bubbles were placed below the 7.6-cm SRPCs in the second year. Results 15months after installation showed significant TCE reductions in the 7.6-cm candle treatment zone (67-85{\%}) and between 10{\%} and 66{\%} decrease in wells impacted by the direct push candles. These results support using slow-release permanganate candles as a means of treating chlorinated solvents in low permeable aquifers.",
keywords = "Chlorinated solvents, Permanganate, Slow-release oxidants, TCE",
author = "Christenson, {Mark D.} and Ann Kambhu and Comfort, {Steve D.}",
year = "2012",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.06.009",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "89",
pages = "680--687",
journal = "Chemosphere",
issn = "0045-6535",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Using slow-release permanganate candles to remove TCE from a low permeable aquifer at a former landfill

AU - Christenson, Mark D.

AU - Kambhu, Ann

AU - Comfort, Steve D.

PY - 2012/10/1

Y1 - 2012/10/1

N2 - Past disposal of industrial solvents into unregulated landfills is a significant source of groundwater contamination. In 2009, we began investigating a former unregulated landfill with known trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. Our objective was to pinpoint the location of the plume and treat the TCE using in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). We accomplished this by using electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to survey the landfill and map the subsurface lithology. We then used the ERI survey maps to guide direct push groundwater sampling. A TCE plume (100-600μgL-1) was identified in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer (Kh=0.5md-1) that was within 6m of ground surface. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate candles (SRPCs) that were 91.4cm long and either 5.1cm or 7.6cm in dia. For comparison, we inserted equal masses of SRPCs (7.6-cm versus 5.1-cm dia) into the low permeable aquifer in staggered rows that intersected the TCE plume. The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted using direct push rods while the 7.6-cm SRPCs were placed in 10 permanent wells. Pneumatic circulators that emitted small air bubbles were placed below the 7.6-cm SRPCs in the second year. Results 15months after installation showed significant TCE reductions in the 7.6-cm candle treatment zone (67-85%) and between 10% and 66% decrease in wells impacted by the direct push candles. These results support using slow-release permanganate candles as a means of treating chlorinated solvents in low permeable aquifers.

AB - Past disposal of industrial solvents into unregulated landfills is a significant source of groundwater contamination. In 2009, we began investigating a former unregulated landfill with known trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. Our objective was to pinpoint the location of the plume and treat the TCE using in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). We accomplished this by using electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to survey the landfill and map the subsurface lithology. We then used the ERI survey maps to guide direct push groundwater sampling. A TCE plume (100-600μgL-1) was identified in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer (Kh=0.5md-1) that was within 6m of ground surface. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate candles (SRPCs) that were 91.4cm long and either 5.1cm or 7.6cm in dia. For comparison, we inserted equal masses of SRPCs (7.6-cm versus 5.1-cm dia) into the low permeable aquifer in staggered rows that intersected the TCE plume. The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted using direct push rods while the 7.6-cm SRPCs were placed in 10 permanent wells. Pneumatic circulators that emitted small air bubbles were placed below the 7.6-cm SRPCs in the second year. Results 15months after installation showed significant TCE reductions in the 7.6-cm candle treatment zone (67-85%) and between 10% and 66% decrease in wells impacted by the direct push candles. These results support using slow-release permanganate candles as a means of treating chlorinated solvents in low permeable aquifers.

KW - Chlorinated solvents

KW - Permanganate

KW - Slow-release oxidants

KW - TCE

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84864958521&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84864958521&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.06.009

DO - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.06.009

M3 - Article

C2 - 22784864

AN - SCOPUS:84864958521

VL - 89

SP - 680

EP - 687

JO - Chemosphere

JF - Chemosphere

SN - 0045-6535

IS - 6

ER -