Use of the 9-item patient health questionnaire for depression assessment in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes

Robert J. Willborn, Mykell Barnacle, Brody Maack, Natasha Petry, Amy Werremeyer, Mark A. Strand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


The purpose of the current study was to assess the frequency and distribution of the 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) among individuals with type 2 diabetes with and without depression. The current casecontrol study used electronic medical record data from two primary care institutions. The sample was divided into cases with coexisting depression and type 2 diabetes and controls without depression. Data included demographics, biomarkers, number of services delivered, and clinic visits in 2013. Similar PHQ-9 use was seen between unique primary care practices. However, less than one third of patients at either site received depression screening with the PHQ-9 in 2013. Male and older adult patients were less likely to receive assessment. Guideline ambiguity and lack of accountability in primary care practice has made the use of depression metrics arbitrary in diabetic populations at risk for depression. To assure adequate care provision, it is imperative that proven tools for assessing depressive symptoms are used.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)56-63
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2016


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)
  • Phychiatric Mental Health

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