Use of Simulations to Improve Pharmacy Students' Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes About Medication Errors and Patient Safety

Jeanne E. Frenzel, Elizabeth T. Skoy, Heidi N. Eukel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


Objective. To design and evaluate the use of simulations in preparing students to identify and reduce medication errors and promote patient safety. Methods. Third-year pharmacy students used methods of root cause analysis (RCA) to determine the cause of a medication error in three simulated pharmacy settings. Before and after the activity, students completed an anonymous survey. They also completed a modified Healthcare Professionals Patient Safety Assessment instrument to measure changes in their knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Results. Ninety out of 165 students submitted complete data sets for analysis. Students demonstrated significant changes in knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding medication errors. They felt they could find the cause of an error, identify factors leading to an error, and work with a team to prevent error recurrence. They also demonstrated an increase in knowledge about medication-related errors and the root cause analysis process. Conclusion. Students used RCA methods to discover medication errors in three simulated pharmacy settings. Students improved their knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding medication errors through this process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Number of pages1
JournalAmerican journal of pharmaceutical education
Issue number8
StatePublished - Oct 1 2018



  • medication errors
  • patient safety
  • pharmacy skills
  • root cause analysis
  • simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

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