Ureteral tunnel length versus ureteral orifice configuration in the determination of ureterovesical junction competence: A computer simulation model

C. A. Villanueva, J. Tong, C. Nelson, L. Gu

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: The long-held belief that a ureteral re-implant tunnel should be five times the diameter of the ureter, as proposed by Paquin in 1959, ignores the effect of the orifice on the occurrence of reflux. In 1969, Lyon proposed that the shape of the ureteral orifice (UO) is more important than the intravesical tunnel. However, both theories missed quantitative evidence from principles of physics. The goal of the current study was to test Lyon's theory through numerical models (i.e. to quantify the sensitivity of ureterovesical junction (UVJ) competence to intravesical tunnel length and to the UO). Materials and methods: The closure of a three-dimensional spatial configuration of ureter, constrained within a bladder, was simulated. Two common UO shapes (i.e. golf type vs 2-mm volcano type (Summary Fig.)), and two different intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratios (3:1 and 5:1) were examined. The required closure pressures were then compared. Results: The UO was a significant factor in determining closure pressure. Given the same intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratio, the required closure pressure for the volcanic orifice was 78% less than that for the golf orifice. On the other hand, the intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratio had minimal effect on the required closure pressure. As the intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratio changed from 3:1 to 5:1, the required closure pressure was reduced by less than 7%, regardless of the orifice shape. Conclusions: The simulation results showed that UVJ competence was more sensitive to a 2-mm protrusion of the UO compared to an increase in the intravesical tunnel length from 3:1 to 5:1. This agrees with Lyon's theory, and at the same time challenges Paquin's 5:1 rule. Researchers could use this information to consider the UO configuration in further animal, human, computer or material models.[Figure presented]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)258.e1-258.e6
JournalJournal of Pediatric Urology
Volume14
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2018

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Computer Simulation
Mental Competency
Pressure
Golf
Ureter
Physics
Urinary Bladder
Research Personnel

Keywords

  • Bladder
  • Finite element model
  • Intravesical tunnel length
  • Ureteral orifice
  • Ureterovesical junction competence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Urology

Cite this

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title = "Ureteral tunnel length versus ureteral orifice configuration in the determination of ureterovesical junction competence: A computer simulation model",
abstract = "Introduction: The long-held belief that a ureteral re-implant tunnel should be five times the diameter of the ureter, as proposed by Paquin in 1959, ignores the effect of the orifice on the occurrence of reflux. In 1969, Lyon proposed that the shape of the ureteral orifice (UO) is more important than the intravesical tunnel. However, both theories missed quantitative evidence from principles of physics. The goal of the current study was to test Lyon's theory through numerical models (i.e. to quantify the sensitivity of ureterovesical junction (UVJ) competence to intravesical tunnel length and to the UO). Materials and methods: The closure of a three-dimensional spatial configuration of ureter, constrained within a bladder, was simulated. Two common UO shapes (i.e. golf type vs 2-mm volcano type (Summary Fig.)), and two different intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratios (3:1 and 5:1) were examined. The required closure pressures were then compared. Results: The UO was a significant factor in determining closure pressure. Given the same intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratio, the required closure pressure for the volcanic orifice was 78{\%} less than that for the golf orifice. On the other hand, the intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratio had minimal effect on the required closure pressure. As the intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratio changed from 3:1 to 5:1, the required closure pressure was reduced by less than 7{\%}, regardless of the orifice shape. Conclusions: The simulation results showed that UVJ competence was more sensitive to a 2-mm protrusion of the UO compared to an increase in the intravesical tunnel length from 3:1 to 5:1. This agrees with Lyon's theory, and at the same time challenges Paquin's 5:1 rule. Researchers could use this information to consider the UO configuration in further animal, human, computer or material models.[Figure presented]",
keywords = "Bladder, Finite element model, Intravesical tunnel length, Ureteral orifice, Ureterovesical junction competence",
author = "Villanueva, {C. A.} and J. Tong and C. Nelson and L. Gu",
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pages = "258.e1--258.e6",
journal = "Journal of Pediatric Urology",
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T1 - Ureteral tunnel length versus ureteral orifice configuration in the determination of ureterovesical junction competence

T2 - A computer simulation model

AU - Villanueva, C. A.

AU - Tong, J.

AU - Nelson, C.

AU - Gu, L.

PY - 2018/6

Y1 - 2018/6

N2 - Introduction: The long-held belief that a ureteral re-implant tunnel should be five times the diameter of the ureter, as proposed by Paquin in 1959, ignores the effect of the orifice on the occurrence of reflux. In 1969, Lyon proposed that the shape of the ureteral orifice (UO) is more important than the intravesical tunnel. However, both theories missed quantitative evidence from principles of physics. The goal of the current study was to test Lyon's theory through numerical models (i.e. to quantify the sensitivity of ureterovesical junction (UVJ) competence to intravesical tunnel length and to the UO). Materials and methods: The closure of a three-dimensional spatial configuration of ureter, constrained within a bladder, was simulated. Two common UO shapes (i.e. golf type vs 2-mm volcano type (Summary Fig.)), and two different intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratios (3:1 and 5:1) were examined. The required closure pressures were then compared. Results: The UO was a significant factor in determining closure pressure. Given the same intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratio, the required closure pressure for the volcanic orifice was 78% less than that for the golf orifice. On the other hand, the intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratio had minimal effect on the required closure pressure. As the intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratio changed from 3:1 to 5:1, the required closure pressure was reduced by less than 7%, regardless of the orifice shape. Conclusions: The simulation results showed that UVJ competence was more sensitive to a 2-mm protrusion of the UO compared to an increase in the intravesical tunnel length from 3:1 to 5:1. This agrees with Lyon's theory, and at the same time challenges Paquin's 5:1 rule. Researchers could use this information to consider the UO configuration in further animal, human, computer or material models.[Figure presented]

AB - Introduction: The long-held belief that a ureteral re-implant tunnel should be five times the diameter of the ureter, as proposed by Paquin in 1959, ignores the effect of the orifice on the occurrence of reflux. In 1969, Lyon proposed that the shape of the ureteral orifice (UO) is more important than the intravesical tunnel. However, both theories missed quantitative evidence from principles of physics. The goal of the current study was to test Lyon's theory through numerical models (i.e. to quantify the sensitivity of ureterovesical junction (UVJ) competence to intravesical tunnel length and to the UO). Materials and methods: The closure of a three-dimensional spatial configuration of ureter, constrained within a bladder, was simulated. Two common UO shapes (i.e. golf type vs 2-mm volcano type (Summary Fig.)), and two different intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratios (3:1 and 5:1) were examined. The required closure pressures were then compared. Results: The UO was a significant factor in determining closure pressure. Given the same intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratio, the required closure pressure for the volcanic orifice was 78% less than that for the golf orifice. On the other hand, the intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratio had minimal effect on the required closure pressure. As the intravesical ureteral tunnel length/diameter ratio changed from 3:1 to 5:1, the required closure pressure was reduced by less than 7%, regardless of the orifice shape. Conclusions: The simulation results showed that UVJ competence was more sensitive to a 2-mm protrusion of the UO compared to an increase in the intravesical tunnel length from 3:1 to 5:1. This agrees with Lyon's theory, and at the same time challenges Paquin's 5:1 rule. Researchers could use this information to consider the UO configuration in further animal, human, computer or material models.[Figure presented]

KW - Bladder

KW - Finite element model

KW - Intravesical tunnel length

KW - Ureteral orifice

KW - Ureterovesical junction competence

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