Background: Our purpose was to test the following hypotheses: (1) patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who develop significant tricuspid regurgitation (TR) or require tricuspid valve (TV) surgery in the medium term have detectable TV abnormalities by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) prestage 1 palliation and (2) TR is associated with reduced survival and increased TV intervention. Methods and Results: Infants were prospectively studied with 3DE and 2DE prestage 1 and followed up for the end points of TR, TV surgery, transplantation, or death. From prestage 1 3DE, spatial coordinates of TV annulus and leaflets were extracted; annulus size, leaflet area, prolapse volume, tethering volume, bending angle, and papillary muscle angle were measured. TR was assessed prestage 1 and at latest follow-up. Of 70 patients, 62 (88.6%) had mild or less TR and 8 (11.4%) had moderate or greater TR prestage 1. Prestage 1 tethering volume correlated to leaflet area (r=0.736; P<0.001), annulus area (r=0.651; P<0.001), right ventricular end-diastolic area (r=0.347; P=0.003), fractional area change (r=-0.387; P<0.001), and TR grade (r=0.447; P<0.001). At follow-up, 46 (65.7%) had mild or less TR (group A) and 24 (34.3%) had moderate or greater TR (group B). Prestage 1 3DE showed greater TV tethering volume and flatter annulus in group B. Survival was better in group A. Conclusions: Increased TV tethering volume and flatter bending angle prestage 1 palliation is associated with TV failure at medium-term follow-up. Increased prestage 1 tethering is related to having larger TV annulus, larger leaflet area, larger right ventricular size, and reduced systolic function. TR progression results in increased TV intervention and decreased survival.
- Heart ventricles
- Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
- Pediatric cardiology
- Tricuspid valve
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine