Translating Koch's postulates to identify matrix metalloproteinase roles in postmyocardial infarction remodeling: Cardiac metalloproteinase actions (carMA) postulates

Rugmani Padmanabhan Iyer, Lisandra E. De Castro Brás, Yu Fang Jin, Merry L. Lindsey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

26 Scopus citations


The first matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) was described in 1962; and since the 1990s, cardiovascular research has focused on understanding how MMPs regulate many aspects of cardiovascular pathology from atherosclerosis formation to myocardial infarction and stroke. Although much information has been gleaned by these past reports, to a large degree MMP cardiovascular biology remains observational, with few studies homing in on cause and effect relationships. KochÊs postulates were first developed in the 19th century as a way to establish microorganism function and were modified in the 20th century to include methods to establish molecular causality. In this review, we outline the concept for establishing a similar approach to determine causality in terms of MMP functions. We use left ventricular remodeling postmyocardial infarction as an example, but this approach will have broad applicability across both the cardiovascular and the MMP fields.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)860-871
Number of pages12
JournalCirculation Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - Feb 28 2014



  • Extracellular matrix
  • fibrosis
  • inflammation
  • matrix metalloproteinases
  • proteomics
  • ventricular remodeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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