Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20: Examining 18 Competing Factor Structure Solutions in a U.S. Sample and a Philippines Sample

Antover P. Tuliao, Alicia K. Klanecky, Bernice Vania N. Landoy, Dennis E. McChargue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 is arguably the most utilized measure of alexithymia. Although a three-factor solution has been found by numerous studies, these findings are not universal. This article examined and compared 18 competing factor structures for the Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20, which included between one and four correlated latent factor structures, common methods models that accounts for negatively worded items, and bifactor models. Although the two-factor bifactor model with a common methods factor had the better model fit compared with the other 17 models examined, it still did not achieve the requisites of a good model fit across all model fit indices. Issues stemmed primarily from the externally oriented thinking factor and the negatively worded items. Post hoc analyses indicated that a two-factor bifactor model with the negatively worded items dropped achieved the requisites of a good model fit and can be treated as a unidimensional measure despite the presence of multidimensionality. Multiple-group analysis indicated that the factor loadings were invariant across U.S. and Philippines samples. After controlling for noninvariance at the item intercept level, the Philippines sample had a higher alexithymia general score compared with the U.S. sample.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019



  • Philippines
  • Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20
  • college students
  • confirmatory factor analysis
  • multiple-group analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Applied Psychology

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