Toll-Like Receptor-3 Mediates HIV-1-Induced Interleukin-6 Expression in the Human Brain Endothelium via TAK1 and JNK Pathways: Implications for Viral Neuropathogenesis

Biju Bhargavan, Georgette D. Kanmogne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is associated with blood-brain-barrier (BBB) inflammation, and inflammation involves toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling. It is not known whether primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), the major BBB component, express TLRs or whether TLRs are involved in BBB dysfunction and HAND. We demonstrate that HBMEC express TLR3, 4, 5, 7, 9, and 10, and TLR3 was the most abundant. HIV-1 and TLR3 activation increased endothelial TLR3 transcription and expression. HIV-1-positive human subjects showed significantly higher TLR3 expression in brain tissues and blood vessels, with higher TLR3 levels in subjects with HAND. HIV-1 and TLR3 activation increased endothelial IL6 expression by 6-to-127-fold (P < 0.001), activated c-jun(serine-63) and SAPK/JNK(Thr183/Tyr185). HIV-1 upregulated IL6 through interleukin-1 receptor-associated-kinase (IRAK)-1/4/TAK1/JNK pathways, via ATP-dependent JNK activation. TLR3 activation upregulated IL6 through TAK1/JNK pathways, via ATP-dependent or -independent JNK activation. HIV-1 and TLR3 activation also upregulated transcription factors associated with IL6 and TAK1/JNK pathways (Jun, CEBPA, STAT1). Blocking TLR3 activation prevented HIV-1- and TLR3 ligands-induced upregulation of these transcription factors, prevented IL6 transcription and expression, c-jun and JNK activation. HIV-1 and TLR3 ligands significantly increased monocytes adhesion and migration through the BBB, and decreased endothelial claudin-5 expression. Blocking TLR3 and JNK activation prevented HIV-1- and TLR3 ligands-induced claudin-5 downregulation, monocytes adhesion and transendothelial migration. These data suggest that viral immune recognition via endothelial TLR3 is involved in endothelial inflammation and BBB dysfunction in HIV/AIDS and HAND. Our data provides novel insights into the molecular basis of these HIV-1- and TLR3-mediated effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5976-5992
Number of pages17
JournalMolecular Neurobiology
Volume55
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018

Fingerprint

Toll-Like Receptor 3
MAP Kinase Signaling System
Endothelium
HIV-1
Interleukin-6
Brain
Blood-Brain Barrier
Toll-Like Receptors
Claudin-5
Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases
Ligands
Monocytes
Transcription Factors
Endothelial Cells
Adenosine Triphosphate
Inflammation
Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration
Encephalitis

Keywords

  • Blood-brain barrier
  • Claudin-5
  • HIV-1
  • Human brain microvascular endothelial cells
  • IL6
  • Monocytes
  • TAK1/MKK7/JNK signaling
  • TLR3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

@article{e87e9d73d54549d5bb22fbd19e8da708,
title = "Toll-Like Receptor-3 Mediates HIV-1-Induced Interleukin-6 Expression in the Human Brain Endothelium via TAK1 and JNK Pathways: Implications for Viral Neuropathogenesis",
abstract = "HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is associated with blood-brain-barrier (BBB) inflammation, and inflammation involves toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling. It is not known whether primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), the major BBB component, express TLRs or whether TLRs are involved in BBB dysfunction and HAND. We demonstrate that HBMEC express TLR3, 4, 5, 7, 9, and 10, and TLR3 was the most abundant. HIV-1 and TLR3 activation increased endothelial TLR3 transcription and expression. HIV-1-positive human subjects showed significantly higher TLR3 expression in brain tissues and blood vessels, with higher TLR3 levels in subjects with HAND. HIV-1 and TLR3 activation increased endothelial IL6 expression by 6-to-127-fold (P < 0.001), activated c-jun(serine-63) and SAPK/JNK(Thr183/Tyr185). HIV-1 upregulated IL6 through interleukin-1 receptor-associated-kinase (IRAK)-1/4/TAK1/JNK pathways, via ATP-dependent JNK activation. TLR3 activation upregulated IL6 through TAK1/JNK pathways, via ATP-dependent or -independent JNK activation. HIV-1 and TLR3 activation also upregulated transcription factors associated with IL6 and TAK1/JNK pathways (Jun, CEBPA, STAT1). Blocking TLR3 activation prevented HIV-1- and TLR3 ligands-induced upregulation of these transcription factors, prevented IL6 transcription and expression, c-jun and JNK activation. HIV-1 and TLR3 ligands significantly increased monocytes adhesion and migration through the BBB, and decreased endothelial claudin-5 expression. Blocking TLR3 and JNK activation prevented HIV-1- and TLR3 ligands-induced claudin-5 downregulation, monocytes adhesion and transendothelial migration. These data suggest that viral immune recognition via endothelial TLR3 is involved in endothelial inflammation and BBB dysfunction in HIV/AIDS and HAND. Our data provides novel insights into the molecular basis of these HIV-1- and TLR3-mediated effects.",
keywords = "Blood-brain barrier, Claudin-5, HIV-1, Human brain microvascular endothelial cells, IL6, Monocytes, TAK1/MKK7/JNK signaling, TLR3",
author = "Biju Bhargavan and Kanmogne, {Georgette D.}",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s12035-017-0816-8",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "55",
pages = "5976--5992",
journal = "Molecular Neurobiology",
issn = "0893-7648",
publisher = "Humana Press",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Toll-Like Receptor-3 Mediates HIV-1-Induced Interleukin-6 Expression in the Human Brain Endothelium via TAK1 and JNK Pathways

T2 - Implications for Viral Neuropathogenesis

AU - Bhargavan, Biju

AU - Kanmogne, Georgette D.

PY - 2018/7/1

Y1 - 2018/7/1

N2 - HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is associated with blood-brain-barrier (BBB) inflammation, and inflammation involves toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling. It is not known whether primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), the major BBB component, express TLRs or whether TLRs are involved in BBB dysfunction and HAND. We demonstrate that HBMEC express TLR3, 4, 5, 7, 9, and 10, and TLR3 was the most abundant. HIV-1 and TLR3 activation increased endothelial TLR3 transcription and expression. HIV-1-positive human subjects showed significantly higher TLR3 expression in brain tissues and blood vessels, with higher TLR3 levels in subjects with HAND. HIV-1 and TLR3 activation increased endothelial IL6 expression by 6-to-127-fold (P < 0.001), activated c-jun(serine-63) and SAPK/JNK(Thr183/Tyr185). HIV-1 upregulated IL6 through interleukin-1 receptor-associated-kinase (IRAK)-1/4/TAK1/JNK pathways, via ATP-dependent JNK activation. TLR3 activation upregulated IL6 through TAK1/JNK pathways, via ATP-dependent or -independent JNK activation. HIV-1 and TLR3 activation also upregulated transcription factors associated with IL6 and TAK1/JNK pathways (Jun, CEBPA, STAT1). Blocking TLR3 activation prevented HIV-1- and TLR3 ligands-induced upregulation of these transcription factors, prevented IL6 transcription and expression, c-jun and JNK activation. HIV-1 and TLR3 ligands significantly increased monocytes adhesion and migration through the BBB, and decreased endothelial claudin-5 expression. Blocking TLR3 and JNK activation prevented HIV-1- and TLR3 ligands-induced claudin-5 downregulation, monocytes adhesion and transendothelial migration. These data suggest that viral immune recognition via endothelial TLR3 is involved in endothelial inflammation and BBB dysfunction in HIV/AIDS and HAND. Our data provides novel insights into the molecular basis of these HIV-1- and TLR3-mediated effects.

AB - HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is associated with blood-brain-barrier (BBB) inflammation, and inflammation involves toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling. It is not known whether primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), the major BBB component, express TLRs or whether TLRs are involved in BBB dysfunction and HAND. We demonstrate that HBMEC express TLR3, 4, 5, 7, 9, and 10, and TLR3 was the most abundant. HIV-1 and TLR3 activation increased endothelial TLR3 transcription and expression. HIV-1-positive human subjects showed significantly higher TLR3 expression in brain tissues and blood vessels, with higher TLR3 levels in subjects with HAND. HIV-1 and TLR3 activation increased endothelial IL6 expression by 6-to-127-fold (P < 0.001), activated c-jun(serine-63) and SAPK/JNK(Thr183/Tyr185). HIV-1 upregulated IL6 through interleukin-1 receptor-associated-kinase (IRAK)-1/4/TAK1/JNK pathways, via ATP-dependent JNK activation. TLR3 activation upregulated IL6 through TAK1/JNK pathways, via ATP-dependent or -independent JNK activation. HIV-1 and TLR3 activation also upregulated transcription factors associated with IL6 and TAK1/JNK pathways (Jun, CEBPA, STAT1). Blocking TLR3 activation prevented HIV-1- and TLR3 ligands-induced upregulation of these transcription factors, prevented IL6 transcription and expression, c-jun and JNK activation. HIV-1 and TLR3 ligands significantly increased monocytes adhesion and migration through the BBB, and decreased endothelial claudin-5 expression. Blocking TLR3 and JNK activation prevented HIV-1- and TLR3 ligands-induced claudin-5 downregulation, monocytes adhesion and transendothelial migration. These data suggest that viral immune recognition via endothelial TLR3 is involved in endothelial inflammation and BBB dysfunction in HIV/AIDS and HAND. Our data provides novel insights into the molecular basis of these HIV-1- and TLR3-mediated effects.

KW - Blood-brain barrier

KW - Claudin-5

KW - HIV-1

KW - Human brain microvascular endothelial cells

KW - IL6

KW - Monocytes

KW - TAK1/MKK7/JNK signaling

KW - TLR3

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85033439683&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85033439683&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s12035-017-0816-8

DO - 10.1007/s12035-017-0816-8

M3 - Article

C2 - 29128906

AN - SCOPUS:85033439683

VL - 55

SP - 5976

EP - 5992

JO - Molecular Neurobiology

JF - Molecular Neurobiology

SN - 0893-7648

IS - 7

ER -