Thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and α-crystallin revive inactivated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase in human aged and cataract lens extracts

Hong Yan, Marjorie F. Lou, M Rohan Fernando, John J. Harding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate whether mammalian thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), with or without α-crystallin can revive inactivated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in both the cortex and nucleus of human aged clear and cataract lenses. Methods: The lens cortex (including capsule-epithehum) and the nucleus were separated from human aged clear and cataract lenses (grade II and grade IV) with similar average age. The activity of GAPDH in the water-soluble fraction after incubation with or without Trx or/and TrxR for 60 min at 30 °C was measured spectrophotometrically. In addition, the effect of a combination of Trx/TrxR and bovine lens α-crystallin was investigated. Results: GAPDH activity was lower in the nucleus of clear lenses than in the cortex, and considerably diminished in the cataractous lenses, particularly in the nucleus of cataract lenses grade IV. Trx and TrxR were able to revive the activity of GAPDH markedly in both the cortex and nucleus of the clear and cataract lenses. The percentage increase of activity in the cortex of the clear lenses was less than that of the nucleus in the presence of Trx and TrxR, whereas it was opposite in the cataract lenses. The revival of activity in both the cortex and nucleus from the cataract lenses grade II was higher than that of the grade IV. Moreover, Trx alone, but not TrxR, efficiently enhanced GAPDH activity. The combination of Trx and TrxR had greater effect than that of either alone. In addition, αL-crystallin enhanced the activity in the cortex of cataract grade II with Trx and TrxR present. However, it failed to provide a statistically significant increase of activity in the nucleus. Conclusions: This is the first evidence to show that mammalian Trx and TrxR are able to revive inactivated GAPDH in human aged clear and cataract lenses, and α-crystallin helped this effect. The inactivation of GAPDH during aging and cataract development must be caused in part by disulphide formation and in part by unfolding, and can be recovered by reducing agents and a molecular chaperone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1153-1159
Number of pages7
JournalMolecular Vision
Volume12
StatePublished - Oct 2 2006

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Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase
Crystallins
Thioredoxins
Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases
Cataract
Lenses
Molecular Chaperones
Reducing Agents
Disulfides
Capsules

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and α-crystallin revive inactivated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase in human aged and cataract lens extracts. / Yan, Hong; Lou, Marjorie F.; Fernando, M Rohan; Harding, John J.

In: Molecular Vision, Vol. 12, 02.10.2006, p. 1153-1159.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and α-crystallin revive inactivated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase in human aged and cataract lens extracts",
abstract = "Purpose: To investigate whether mammalian thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), with or without α-crystallin can revive inactivated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in both the cortex and nucleus of human aged clear and cataract lenses. Methods: The lens cortex (including capsule-epithehum) and the nucleus were separated from human aged clear and cataract lenses (grade II and grade IV) with similar average age. The activity of GAPDH in the water-soluble fraction after incubation with or without Trx or/and TrxR for 60 min at 30 °C was measured spectrophotometrically. In addition, the effect of a combination of Trx/TrxR and bovine lens α-crystallin was investigated. Results: GAPDH activity was lower in the nucleus of clear lenses than in the cortex, and considerably diminished in the cataractous lenses, particularly in the nucleus of cataract lenses grade IV. Trx and TrxR were able to revive the activity of GAPDH markedly in both the cortex and nucleus of the clear and cataract lenses. The percentage increase of activity in the cortex of the clear lenses was less than that of the nucleus in the presence of Trx and TrxR, whereas it was opposite in the cataract lenses. The revival of activity in both the cortex and nucleus from the cataract lenses grade II was higher than that of the grade IV. Moreover, Trx alone, but not TrxR, efficiently enhanced GAPDH activity. The combination of Trx and TrxR had greater effect than that of either alone. In addition, αL-crystallin enhanced the activity in the cortex of cataract grade II with Trx and TrxR present. However, it failed to provide a statistically significant increase of activity in the nucleus. Conclusions: This is the first evidence to show that mammalian Trx and TrxR are able to revive inactivated GAPDH in human aged clear and cataract lenses, and α-crystallin helped this effect. The inactivation of GAPDH during aging and cataract development must be caused in part by disulphide formation and in part by unfolding, and can be recovered by reducing agents and a molecular chaperone.",
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AU - Fernando, M Rohan

AU - Harding, John J.

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N2 - Purpose: To investigate whether mammalian thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), with or without α-crystallin can revive inactivated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in both the cortex and nucleus of human aged clear and cataract lenses. Methods: The lens cortex (including capsule-epithehum) and the nucleus were separated from human aged clear and cataract lenses (grade II and grade IV) with similar average age. The activity of GAPDH in the water-soluble fraction after incubation with or without Trx or/and TrxR for 60 min at 30 °C was measured spectrophotometrically. In addition, the effect of a combination of Trx/TrxR and bovine lens α-crystallin was investigated. Results: GAPDH activity was lower in the nucleus of clear lenses than in the cortex, and considerably diminished in the cataractous lenses, particularly in the nucleus of cataract lenses grade IV. Trx and TrxR were able to revive the activity of GAPDH markedly in both the cortex and nucleus of the clear and cataract lenses. The percentage increase of activity in the cortex of the clear lenses was less than that of the nucleus in the presence of Trx and TrxR, whereas it was opposite in the cataract lenses. The revival of activity in both the cortex and nucleus from the cataract lenses grade II was higher than that of the grade IV. Moreover, Trx alone, but not TrxR, efficiently enhanced GAPDH activity. The combination of Trx and TrxR had greater effect than that of either alone. In addition, αL-crystallin enhanced the activity in the cortex of cataract grade II with Trx and TrxR present. However, it failed to provide a statistically significant increase of activity in the nucleus. Conclusions: This is the first evidence to show that mammalian Trx and TrxR are able to revive inactivated GAPDH in human aged clear and cataract lenses, and α-crystallin helped this effect. The inactivation of GAPDH during aging and cataract development must be caused in part by disulphide formation and in part by unfolding, and can be recovered by reducing agents and a molecular chaperone.

AB - Purpose: To investigate whether mammalian thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), with or without α-crystallin can revive inactivated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in both the cortex and nucleus of human aged clear and cataract lenses. Methods: The lens cortex (including capsule-epithehum) and the nucleus were separated from human aged clear and cataract lenses (grade II and grade IV) with similar average age. The activity of GAPDH in the water-soluble fraction after incubation with or without Trx or/and TrxR for 60 min at 30 °C was measured spectrophotometrically. In addition, the effect of a combination of Trx/TrxR and bovine lens α-crystallin was investigated. Results: GAPDH activity was lower in the nucleus of clear lenses than in the cortex, and considerably diminished in the cataractous lenses, particularly in the nucleus of cataract lenses grade IV. Trx and TrxR were able to revive the activity of GAPDH markedly in both the cortex and nucleus of the clear and cataract lenses. The percentage increase of activity in the cortex of the clear lenses was less than that of the nucleus in the presence of Trx and TrxR, whereas it was opposite in the cataract lenses. The revival of activity in both the cortex and nucleus from the cataract lenses grade II was higher than that of the grade IV. Moreover, Trx alone, but not TrxR, efficiently enhanced GAPDH activity. The combination of Trx and TrxR had greater effect than that of either alone. In addition, αL-crystallin enhanced the activity in the cortex of cataract grade II with Trx and TrxR present. However, it failed to provide a statistically significant increase of activity in the nucleus. Conclusions: This is the first evidence to show that mammalian Trx and TrxR are able to revive inactivated GAPDH in human aged clear and cataract lenses, and α-crystallin helped this effect. The inactivation of GAPDH during aging and cataract development must be caused in part by disulphide formation and in part by unfolding, and can be recovered by reducing agents and a molecular chaperone.

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