The role of the amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate in encoding expected outcomes during learning

D. S. Kosson, S. Budhani, M. Nakic, G. Chen, Z. S. Saad, M. Vythilingam, D. S. Pine, R. J.R. Blair

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

41 Scopus citations


Successful passive avoidance learning is thought to require the use of learned stimulus-reinforcement associations to guide decision making [Baxter, M.G., Murray, E.A., 2002. The amygdala and reward. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 3, 563-573]. The current experiment investigated the neural correlates of successful passive avoidance learning in 19 healthy adults. Behaviorally, subjects showed a distinct pattern of performance: early indiscriminate responding to stimuli (pre-criterion performance), followed by relatively rapid learning before a plateau of successful performance (post-criterion performance). Neural responses to post-criterion correct responses were compared with neural responses to both incorrect responses and pre-criterion correct responses. Post-criterion correct responding was associated with increased activation in regions including rostral anterior cingulate, insula, caudate, hippocampal regions, and the amygdala.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1161-1172
Number of pages12
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Feb 15 2006


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience

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