The relevance of experimental carcinogenicity studies to human safety

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

7 Scopus citations


The two year rodent bioassay has been the standard for carcinogenicity screening for 5 decades. However, numerous examples exist showing that a positive result is not predictive of human cancer risk because of lack of relevant dose and/or mode of action. Utilizing basic principles of carcinogenesis, evaluating chemicals for DNA reactivity, immunosuppression, estrogenic activity and increased cell proliferation provides a more scientific, rationally based process for evaluating risk, in conjunction with metabolism in human cell systems and dose response considerations. George Box once stated, “Models; all are wrong, some are useful.” The two year rodent bioassay screen for carcinogenesis is no longer useful.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6-11
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Opinion in Toxicology
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2017



  • Cell proliferation
  • Cytotoxicity
  • DNA reactivity
  • Estrogen
  • Immunosuppression
  • Mitogenicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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