The relationship between passive stiffness and muscle power output: Influence of muscle cross-sectional area normalization

Ty B. Palmer, Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins, Brennan J. Thompson, Douglas B. Smith, Joel T. Cramer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Scopus citations


Introduction: We examined the relationship between passive stiffness of posterior hip and thigh muscles and muscle power output before and after normalization of passive stiffness to muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Methods: Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were used to assess the relationships between the normalized and non-normalized slopes of the initial (phase 1) and final (phase 2) portions of the angle-torque curve and peak power output (Pmax). Results: A significant positive relationship was observed between the non-normalized slope of phase 1 and Pmax (r=0.723; P≤0.001); however, no correlations were observed between the normalized slope of phase 1 and Pmax (r=0.244; P=0.299) nor between Pmax and the normalized and non-normalized slopes of phase 2 (r=-0.159-0.418; P=0.067-0.504). Conclusions: The findings suggest that muscle size, rather than stiffness, accounted for a significant portion of the variance in muscle power output.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-75
Number of pages7
JournalMuscle and Nerve
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014



  • Musculotendinous unit
  • Normalization
  • Passive stiffness
  • Power
  • Vertical jump performance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this