U tube placement was employed as an adjunct to complicated biliary procedures in 14 patients. We found the transhepatic tubes to be useful for stenting biliary anastomoses, maintaining biliary drainage, delivering localized irradiation, and acting as permanent external conduits. The tubes remained in placed an average of 15 months and as long as 40 months. The freguency of cholangitis was minimized by frequent tube exchange. The U-shaped configuration makes tube exchange easy and inexpensive to perform.
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