The Intersection of Race, Sexual Orientation, Socioeconomic Status, Trans Identity, and Mental Health Outcomes

Stephanie L. Budge, Jayden L. Thai, Elliot A. Tebbe, Kimberly A.S. Howard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Scopus citations


The present study examined patterns in trans individuals' multiple identities and mental health outcomes. Cluster 1 (socioeconomic and racial privilege; n = 239) was characterized by individuals who identified as trans women or cross-dressers, lesbian, bisexual, or questioning; had associates degrees; reported household incomes of $60,000 or more a year; and were non-Latino White. Cluster 2 (educational privilege; n = 191) was characterized by individuals who identified as trans men or genderqueer, gay, or queer; had a bachelor's degree; reported household incomes of $10,000 or less a year; and were people of color. There was a pattern of individuals in Cluster 1 who identified with two privileged identities (identifying as White and having higher household incomes), whereas individuals in Cluster 2 identified only formal education as a privilege. Individuals in Cluster 2 reported statistically significant levels of anxiety. Implications of these results for future research and clinical practice are examined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1025-1049
Number of pages25
JournalCounseling Psychologist
Issue number7
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016



  • cluster analysis
  • identity
  • intersectionality
  • privilege
  • trans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology

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