The four-quadrant assessment of amniotic fluid volume: An adjunct to antepartum fetal heart rate testing

S. E. Rutherford, J. P. Phelan, C. V. Smith, N. Jacobs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

282 Scopus citations


Amniotic fluid volume assessment using a semiquantitative four-quadrant technique, the amniotic fluid index, was evaluated in relationship to fetal heart rate (FHR) testing and perinatal morbidity in 330 high-risk pregnancies. An inverse relationship was found between the amniotic fluid index and nonreactive nonstress tests (NST), FHR decelerations, meconium staining, cesarean section for fetal distress, and low Apgar scores. More important, adverse perinatal outcome was significantly more frequent with diminished compared with normal amniotic fluid volume, even if the NST was reactive.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)353-356
Number of pages4
JournalObstetrics and gynecology
Issue number3 PART I
StatePublished - Dec 1 1987


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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