The FEMA GRAS assessment of benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients

T. B. Adams, Samuel Monroe Cohen, J. Doull, V. J. Feron, J. I. Goodman, L. J. Marnett, I. C. Munro, P. S. Portoghese, R. L. Smith, W. J. Waddell, B. M. Wagner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This publication is the eighth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of benzyl derivatives as flavoring ingredients is evaluated. The group of benzyl derivatives was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals, their low level of flavor use, the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. This evidence of safety is supported by the fact that the intake of benzyl derivatives as natural components of traditional foods is greater than their intake as intentionally added flavoring substances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1207-1240
Number of pages34
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume43
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2005

Fingerprint

Flavors
flavorings
ingredients
flavor
chemical derivatives
Derivatives
Safety
extracts
no observed adverse effect level
margin of safety
traditional foods
toxicology
pharmacokinetics
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
Food
Pharmacokinetics
excretion
Metabolism
Toxicology
metabolism

Keywords

  • Benzyl derivatives
  • FEMA GRAS
  • Flavoring ingredients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology

Cite this

Adams, T. B., Cohen, S. M., Doull, J., Feron, V. J., Goodman, J. I., Marnett, L. J., ... Wagner, B. M. (2005). The FEMA GRAS assessment of benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 43(8), 1207-1240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2004.11.014

The FEMA GRAS assessment of benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients. / Adams, T. B.; Cohen, Samuel Monroe; Doull, J.; Feron, V. J.; Goodman, J. I.; Marnett, L. J.; Munro, I. C.; Portoghese, P. S.; Smith, R. L.; Waddell, W. J.; Wagner, B. M.

In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 43, No. 8, 01.08.2005, p. 1207-1240.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Adams, TB, Cohen, SM, Doull, J, Feron, VJ, Goodman, JI, Marnett, LJ, Munro, IC, Portoghese, PS, Smith, RL, Waddell, WJ & Wagner, BM 2005, 'The FEMA GRAS assessment of benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients', Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 1207-1240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2004.11.014
Adams, T. B. ; Cohen, Samuel Monroe ; Doull, J. ; Feron, V. J. ; Goodman, J. I. ; Marnett, L. J. ; Munro, I. C. ; Portoghese, P. S. ; Smith, R. L. ; Waddell, W. J. ; Wagner, B. M. / The FEMA GRAS assessment of benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients. In: Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2005 ; Vol. 43, No. 8. pp. 1207-1240.
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