The Effect of Different Methods of Fermentation on the Detection of Milk Protein Residues in Retail Cheese by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

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Abstract

Abstract: Milk and milk products are among the most important allergenic food ingredients, both in the United States and throughout the world; cheeses are among the most important of these milk products. Milk contains several major antigenic proteins, each with differing susceptibilities to proteolytic enzymes. The extent of proteolysis in cheese varies as a result of conditions during manufacture and ripening. Proteolysis has the potential to degrade antigenic and allergenic epitopes that are important for residue detection and elicitation of allergic reactions. Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are not currently validated for use in detecting residues in hydrolyzed or fermented food products. Eighteen retail cheeses produced using 5 different styles of fermentation were investigated for detectable milk protein residues with 4 commercial ELISA kits. Mozzarella, Swiss, Blue, Limburger, and Brie cheeses were assessed. The Neogen Veratox® Casein and Neogen Veratox® Total Milk kits were capable of detecting milk residues in most cheeses evaluated, including blue-veined cheeses that exhibit extensive proteolysis. The other 2 ELISA kits evaluated, r-Biopharm® Fast Casein and ELISA Systems™ Casein, can detect milk residues in cheeses other than blue-veined varieties. ELISA results cannot be quantitatively compared among kits. The quantitative reliability of ELISA results in detection of cheese residues is questionable, but some methods are sufficiently robust to use as a semi-quantitative indication of proper allergen control for the validation of cleaning programs in industry settings. Practical Application: Many commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are not validated for detection of allergenic residues in fermented or hydrolyzed products. This research seeks to determine if commercial milk ELISAs can detect milk residues in varieties of cheese that have undergone different styles of fermentation and different degrees of proteolysis. Only certain milk ELISA kits are capable of detecting residues in all varieties of cheese. However, commercial milk ELISA kits are capable of semiquantitative detection of cheese residues in foods, or in industry settings for the validation of allergen cleaning programs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2752-2758
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of food science
Volume82
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2017

Fingerprint

Milk Proteins
Cheese
dairy protein
Fermentation
cheeses
Milk
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
fermentation
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
milk
proteolysis
Proteolysis
Caseins
casein
methodology
allergens
cleaning
dairy products
Food
Allergens

Keywords

  • ELISA
  • allergen
  • cheese
  • fermentation
  • milk protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

Cite this

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title = "The Effect of Different Methods of Fermentation on the Detection of Milk Protein Residues in Retail Cheese by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)",
abstract = "Abstract: Milk and milk products are among the most important allergenic food ingredients, both in the United States and throughout the world; cheeses are among the most important of these milk products. Milk contains several major antigenic proteins, each with differing susceptibilities to proteolytic enzymes. The extent of proteolysis in cheese varies as a result of conditions during manufacture and ripening. Proteolysis has the potential to degrade antigenic and allergenic epitopes that are important for residue detection and elicitation of allergic reactions. Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are not currently validated for use in detecting residues in hydrolyzed or fermented food products. Eighteen retail cheeses produced using 5 different styles of fermentation were investigated for detectable milk protein residues with 4 commercial ELISA kits. Mozzarella, Swiss, Blue, Limburger, and Brie cheeses were assessed. The Neogen Veratox{\circledR} Casein and Neogen Veratox{\circledR} Total Milk kits were capable of detecting milk residues in most cheeses evaluated, including blue-veined cheeses that exhibit extensive proteolysis. The other 2 ELISA kits evaluated, r-Biopharm{\circledR} Fast Casein and ELISA Systems™ Casein, can detect milk residues in cheeses other than blue-veined varieties. ELISA results cannot be quantitatively compared among kits. The quantitative reliability of ELISA results in detection of cheese residues is questionable, but some methods are sufficiently robust to use as a semi-quantitative indication of proper allergen control for the validation of cleaning programs in industry settings. Practical Application: Many commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are not validated for detection of allergenic residues in fermented or hydrolyzed products. This research seeks to determine if commercial milk ELISAs can detect milk residues in varieties of cheese that have undergone different styles of fermentation and different degrees of proteolysis. Only certain milk ELISA kits are capable of detecting residues in all varieties of cheese. However, commercial milk ELISA kits are capable of semiquantitative detection of cheese residues in foods, or in industry settings for the validation of allergen cleaning programs.",
keywords = "ELISA, allergen, cheese, fermentation, milk protein",
author = "Ivens, {Katherine O.} and Baumert, {Joseph L.} and Hutkins, {Robert L.} and Taylor, {Steve L.}",
year = "2017",
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language = "English (US)",
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pages = "2752--2758",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - The Effect of Different Methods of Fermentation on the Detection of Milk Protein Residues in Retail Cheese by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

AU - Ivens, Katherine O.

AU - Baumert, Joseph L.

AU - Hutkins, Robert L.

AU - Taylor, Steve L.

PY - 2017/11

Y1 - 2017/11

N2 - Abstract: Milk and milk products are among the most important allergenic food ingredients, both in the United States and throughout the world; cheeses are among the most important of these milk products. Milk contains several major antigenic proteins, each with differing susceptibilities to proteolytic enzymes. The extent of proteolysis in cheese varies as a result of conditions during manufacture and ripening. Proteolysis has the potential to degrade antigenic and allergenic epitopes that are important for residue detection and elicitation of allergic reactions. Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are not currently validated for use in detecting residues in hydrolyzed or fermented food products. Eighteen retail cheeses produced using 5 different styles of fermentation were investigated for detectable milk protein residues with 4 commercial ELISA kits. Mozzarella, Swiss, Blue, Limburger, and Brie cheeses were assessed. The Neogen Veratox® Casein and Neogen Veratox® Total Milk kits were capable of detecting milk residues in most cheeses evaluated, including blue-veined cheeses that exhibit extensive proteolysis. The other 2 ELISA kits evaluated, r-Biopharm® Fast Casein and ELISA Systems™ Casein, can detect milk residues in cheeses other than blue-veined varieties. ELISA results cannot be quantitatively compared among kits. The quantitative reliability of ELISA results in detection of cheese residues is questionable, but some methods are sufficiently robust to use as a semi-quantitative indication of proper allergen control for the validation of cleaning programs in industry settings. Practical Application: Many commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are not validated for detection of allergenic residues in fermented or hydrolyzed products. This research seeks to determine if commercial milk ELISAs can detect milk residues in varieties of cheese that have undergone different styles of fermentation and different degrees of proteolysis. Only certain milk ELISA kits are capable of detecting residues in all varieties of cheese. However, commercial milk ELISA kits are capable of semiquantitative detection of cheese residues in foods, or in industry settings for the validation of allergen cleaning programs.

AB - Abstract: Milk and milk products are among the most important allergenic food ingredients, both in the United States and throughout the world; cheeses are among the most important of these milk products. Milk contains several major antigenic proteins, each with differing susceptibilities to proteolytic enzymes. The extent of proteolysis in cheese varies as a result of conditions during manufacture and ripening. Proteolysis has the potential to degrade antigenic and allergenic epitopes that are important for residue detection and elicitation of allergic reactions. Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are not currently validated for use in detecting residues in hydrolyzed or fermented food products. Eighteen retail cheeses produced using 5 different styles of fermentation were investigated for detectable milk protein residues with 4 commercial ELISA kits. Mozzarella, Swiss, Blue, Limburger, and Brie cheeses were assessed. The Neogen Veratox® Casein and Neogen Veratox® Total Milk kits were capable of detecting milk residues in most cheeses evaluated, including blue-veined cheeses that exhibit extensive proteolysis. The other 2 ELISA kits evaluated, r-Biopharm® Fast Casein and ELISA Systems™ Casein, can detect milk residues in cheeses other than blue-veined varieties. ELISA results cannot be quantitatively compared among kits. The quantitative reliability of ELISA results in detection of cheese residues is questionable, but some methods are sufficiently robust to use as a semi-quantitative indication of proper allergen control for the validation of cleaning programs in industry settings. Practical Application: Many commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are not validated for detection of allergenic residues in fermented or hydrolyzed products. This research seeks to determine if commercial milk ELISAs can detect milk residues in varieties of cheese that have undergone different styles of fermentation and different degrees of proteolysis. Only certain milk ELISA kits are capable of detecting residues in all varieties of cheese. However, commercial milk ELISA kits are capable of semiquantitative detection of cheese residues in foods, or in industry settings for the validation of allergen cleaning programs.

KW - ELISA

KW - allergen

KW - cheese

KW - fermentation

KW - milk protein

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