The differential risk factors of physically forced and alcohol- or other drug-enabled sexual assault among university women

Christopher P. Krebs, Christine H. Lindquist, Tara D. Warner, Bonnie S. Fisher, Sandra L. Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Scopus citations


The Campus Sexual Assault Study examined whether undergraduate women's victimization experiences prior to college and lifestyle activities during college were differentially associated with the type of sexual assault they experienced: physically forced sexual assault and incapacitated sexual assault. Self-reported data collected using a Web-based survey administered to more than 5,000 undergraduate women at two large public universities indicated that victimization experiences before college were differentially associated with the risk of experiencing these two types of sexual assault during college. Women who experienced forced sexual assault before college were at very high risk of experiencing forced sexual assault during college (odds ratio [OR] = 6.6). Women who experienced incapacitated sexual assault before college were also at very high risk of experiencing incapacitated sexual assault during college (OR = 3.7). Moreover, women's substance use behaviors during college, including getting drunk and using marijuana, were strongly associated with experiencing incapacitated sexual assault but were not associated with experiencing forced sexual assault. Implications for education and prevention programs, as well as future research directions, are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)302-321
Number of pages20
JournalViolence and Victims
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2009



  • Incapacitated
  • Risk factors
  • Sexual assault
  • Sexual victimization
  • Sexual violence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Health(social science)
  • Law

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