The conceptualization and effect of control beliefs on exercise attendance in the elderly

Paul Estabrooks, Albert V. Carron

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Scopus citations


The purpose of the study was to compare the relative merits of two approaches to the measurement of perceived behavioral control for the prediction of attendance in an exercise program in an elderly population. The first approach was to conceptualize perceived behavioral control in the traditional manner outlined by Ajzen (1987). The second approach was to conceptualize control beliefs as two distinct constructs: scheduling self- efficacy and perceived barriers to exercise. Participants (N = 157, average age = 68 years ± 7.87, 74% female) were volunteers from elderly exercise classes. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires assessing the constructs at Weeks 5 and 9 of a 16-week exercise program. Attendance was monitored and used as the dependent variable. Results revealed that in an active elderly sample, (a) scheduling self-efficacy is a superior conceptualization for control beliefs than perceived behavioral control, (b) neither attitude nor subjective norm predict intention or attendance in an exercise program, and (c) perceived barriers to exercise are not related to exercise intention or attendance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)441-457
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Aging and Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1 1998


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies

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