The cellular immunology of multiple sclerosis

Jinan Al-Omaishi, Rifaat Bashir, Howard Eliot Gendelman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that affects the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) resulting in debilitating motor and sensory dysfunction. Its mean age of onset is 30 years and, with the exception of trauma, MS remains the most frequent cause of neurological disabilities for young adults. The disease is highly variable in its onset and progression. It may not be easily diagnosed, at least in its earliest stages. Significant disability is a hallmark of MS. Indeed, up to 50% of patients require walking aids and 10% are wheelchair-bound at 15 years after an initial diagnosis. Clinical features include deficits in sensory (parasthesias and numbness), motor (difficulties with fine movements and gait), balance, bladder, and sexual functions. Although the etiology for MS is not yet known' it is thought to be related to microbial, genetic, and/or environmental factors. Pathologically, MS is characterized by inflammation. An influx of mononuclear cells occurs through a disrupted blood-brain barrier into an immune-privileged central nervous system. The secretion of a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines from glial cells leads to loss of myelin, disruption of oligodendrocyte integrity, and axonal loss. These events, in large measure, affect progressive neural atrophy. How brain inflammatory activities affect transendothelial migration of leukocytes into the brain and alter the process of myelination are the focal points for MS research activities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)444-452
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Leukocyte Biology
Volume65
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999

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Allergy and Immunology
Multiple Sclerosis
Brain
Microbial Genetics
Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration
Wheelchairs
Hypesthesia
Central Nervous System Diseases
Oligodendroglia
Myelin Sheath
Blood-Brain Barrier
Gait
Age of Onset
Chemokines
Neuroglia
Walking
Atrophy
Young Adult
Spinal Cord
Urinary Bladder

Keywords

  • Cytokines
  • Myelin
  • Oligodendrocyte

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

The cellular immunology of multiple sclerosis. / Al-Omaishi, Jinan; Bashir, Rifaat; Gendelman, Howard Eliot.

In: Journal of Leukocyte Biology, Vol. 65, No. 4, 01.01.1999, p. 444-452.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Al-Omaishi, Jinan ; Bashir, Rifaat ; Gendelman, Howard Eliot. / The cellular immunology of multiple sclerosis. In: Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 1999 ; Vol. 65, No. 4. pp. 444-452.
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