The assembly of galaxy clusters

Joel C. Berrier, Kyle R. Stewart, James S. Bullock, Chris W. Purcell, Elizabeth J. Barton, Risa H. Wechsler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

97 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We study the formation of 53 galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 1014.0-14.76 M ) formed within a pair of cosmological Λ cold dark matter N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host 0.3 L * galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no " preprocessing" in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; less than 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past (≲6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local cluster processes such as ram pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass, and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with 20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and 20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate timescale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be 6 Gyr.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1292-1302
Number of pages11
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume690
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2009

Fingerprint

assembly
accretion
galaxies
merger
halos
timescale
history
simulation
dark matter
ram
preprocessing
stripping
stellar mass
histories

Keywords

  • Cosmology: theory
  • Galaxies: evolution
  • Galaxies: formation
  • Galaxies: high-redshift
  • Galaxies: interactions
  • Galaxies: statistics
  • Large-scale structure of universe

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Berrier, J. C., Stewart, K. R., Bullock, J. S., Purcell, C. W., Barton, E. J., & Wechsler, R. H. (2009). The assembly of galaxy clusters. Astrophysical Journal, 690(2), 1292-1302. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/690/2/1292

The assembly of galaxy clusters. / Berrier, Joel C.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Purcell, Chris W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 690, No. 2, 01.01.2009, p. 1292-1302.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Berrier, JC, Stewart, KR, Bullock, JS, Purcell, CW, Barton, EJ & Wechsler, RH 2009, 'The assembly of galaxy clusters', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 690, no. 2, pp. 1292-1302. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/690/2/1292
Berrier JC, Stewart KR, Bullock JS, Purcell CW, Barton EJ, Wechsler RH. The assembly of galaxy clusters. Astrophysical Journal. 2009 Jan 1;690(2):1292-1302. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/690/2/1292
Berrier, Joel C. ; Stewart, Kyle R. ; Bullock, James S. ; Purcell, Chris W. ; Barton, Elizabeth J. ; Wechsler, Risa H. / The assembly of galaxy clusters. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2009 ; Vol. 690, No. 2. pp. 1292-1302.
@article{a2c6ff0c530b4f078b82c425982f8582,
title = "The assembly of galaxy clusters",
abstract = "We study the formation of 53 galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 1014.0-14.76 M ⊙) formed within a pair of cosmological Λ cold dark matter N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host 0.3 L * galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no {"} preprocessing{"} in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, 70{\%} of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; less than 12{\%} are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past (≲6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local cluster processes such as ram pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass, and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with 20{\%} incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and 20{\%} within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate timescale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be 6 Gyr.",
keywords = "Cosmology: theory, Galaxies: evolution, Galaxies: formation, Galaxies: high-redshift, Galaxies: interactions, Galaxies: statistics, Large-scale structure of universe",
author = "Berrier, {Joel C.} and Stewart, {Kyle R.} and Bullock, {James S.} and Purcell, {Chris W.} and Barton, {Elizabeth J.} and Wechsler, {Risa H.}",
year = "2009",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1088/0004-637X/690/2/1292",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "690",
pages = "1292--1302",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
issn = "0004-637X",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The assembly of galaxy clusters

AU - Berrier, Joel C.

AU - Stewart, Kyle R.

AU - Bullock, James S.

AU - Purcell, Chris W.

AU - Barton, Elizabeth J.

AU - Wechsler, Risa H.

PY - 2009/1/1

Y1 - 2009/1/1

N2 - We study the formation of 53 galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 1014.0-14.76 M ⊙) formed within a pair of cosmological Λ cold dark matter N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host 0.3 L * galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no " preprocessing" in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; less than 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past (≲6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local cluster processes such as ram pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass, and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with 20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and 20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate timescale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be 6 Gyr.

AB - We study the formation of 53 galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 1014.0-14.76 M ⊙) formed within a pair of cosmological Λ cold dark matter N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host 0.3 L * galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no " preprocessing" in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; less than 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past (≲6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local cluster processes such as ram pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass, and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with 20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and 20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate timescale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be 6 Gyr.

KW - Cosmology: theory

KW - Galaxies: evolution

KW - Galaxies: formation

KW - Galaxies: high-redshift

KW - Galaxies: interactions

KW - Galaxies: statistics

KW - Large-scale structure of universe

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=63549088004&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=63549088004&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/690/2/1292

DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/690/2/1292

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:63549088004

VL - 690

SP - 1292

EP - 1302

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 2

ER -