The adaptive evolution of virulence: A review of theoretical predictions and empirical tests

Clayton E. Cressler, David V. McLeod, Carly Rozins, Josée Van Den Hoogen, Troy Day

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

69 Scopus citations


SUMMARY Why is it that some parasites cause high levels of host damage (i.e. virulence) whereas others are relatively benign? There are now numerous reviews of virulence evolution in the literature but it is nevertheless still difficult to find a comprehensive treatment of the theory and data on the subject that is easily accessible to non-specialists. Here we attempt to do so by distilling the vast theoretical literature on the topic into a set of relatively few robust predictions. We then provide a comprehensive assessment of the available empirical literature that tests these predictions. Our results show that there have been some notable successes in integrating theory and data but also that theory and empiricism in this field do not 'speak' to each other very well. We offer a few suggestions for how the connection between the two might be improved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)915-930
Number of pages16
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jun 1 2016



  • Tradeoff hypothesis
  • evolutionary medicine
  • infectious disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this