Temperament in the Prediction of Proximal Versus Distal Expectancies

An Acquired Preparedness Model

Russell M. Marks, Jeffrey S. Simons, Raluca Simons, Harry Freeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In the acquired preparedness model of risk, alcohol expectancies mediate the association between personality and alcohol problems. In the current study, we tested the associations between temperament (i.e., effortful control and reactivity) and temperament-congruent expectancies of distal and proximal effects. It was hypothesized that effortful control would be inversely associated with drinking and problems and that these effects would be mediated through consequence expectancies. Alternatively, it was hypothesized that reactivity would be positively associated with drinking and problems and that these effects would be mediated by expectancies of immediate stimulation and attenuated sedation. This article presents data from a multiple group analyses with 483 young adults (76% female) from a university in the Midwest (n = 209) and Amazon's Mechanical Turk (n = 274). The hypotheses were partially supported. Reactivity was associated with expectancies of stimulation, which were associated with increased weekly drinking and problems. Reactivity was associated with increased weekly drinking and problems and this association was partially indirect through stimulating expectancies. Reactivity did not significantly predict sedating expectancies. The indirect effects from effortful control through consequence expectancies were not significant. There were curvilinear effects from consequence expectancies to drinking and problems. Specifically, the effect from consequence expectancies to drinking and problems was positive at low levels of expectancies, but became negative and significant at mean levels and above. Results of the invariance testing indicated that the model manifested similarly across university and MTurk respondents. These implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalExperimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Temperament
Drinking
Alcohols
Personality
Young Adult

Keywords

  • Acquired preparedness
  • Biphasic expectancies
  • Drinking
  • Model invariance
  • MTurk

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Temperament in the Prediction of Proximal Versus Distal Expectancies : An Acquired Preparedness Model. / Marks, Russell M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Simons, Raluca; Freeman, Harry.

In: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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