Targeted insertion of cysteine by decoding UGA codons with mammalian selenocysteine machinery

Xue Ming Xu, Anton A. Turanov, Bradley A. Carlson, Min Hyuk Yoo, Robert A. Everley, Renu Nandakumar, Irina Sorokina, Steven P. Gygi, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Dolph L. Hatfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cysteine (Cys) is inserted into proteins in response to UGC and UGU codons. Herein, we show that supplementation of mammalian cells with thiophosphate led to targeted insertion of Cys at the UGA codon of thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1). This Cys was synthesized by selenocysteine (Sec) synthase on tRNA [Ser]Sec and its insertion was dependent on the Sec insertion sequence element in the 3′ UTR of TR1 mRNA. The substrate for this reaction, thiophosphate, was synthesized by selenophosphate synthetase 2 from ATP and sulfide and reacted with phosphoseryl-tRNA[Ser]Sec to generate Cys-tRNA[Ser]Sec. Cys was inserted in vivo at UGA codons in natural mammalian TRs, and this process was regulated by dietary selenium and availability of thiophosphate. Cys occurred at 10% of the Sec levels in liver TR1 of mice maintained on a diet with normal amounts of selenium and at 50% in liver TR1 of mice maintained on a selenium deficient diet. These data reveal a novel Sec machinerybased mechanism for biosynthesis and insertion of Cys into protein at UGA codons and suggest new biological functions for thiophosphate and sulfide in mammals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21430-21434
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume107
Issue number50
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 14 2010

Fingerprint

Selenocysteine
Terminator Codon
Thioredoxin Reductase 1
Cysteine
RNA, Transfer, Ser
Selenium
Sulfides
Diet
DNA Transposable Elements
Liver
3' Untranslated Regions
Codon
Mammals
Proteins
Adenosine Triphosphate
Messenger RNA
thiophosphoric acid

Keywords

  • De novo synthesis
  • New biosynthetic pathway
  • Selenium deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Xu, X. M., Turanov, A. A., Carlson, B. A., Yoo, M. H., Everley, R. A., Nandakumar, R., ... Hatfield, D. L. (2010). Targeted insertion of cysteine by decoding UGA codons with mammalian selenocysteine machinery. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(50), 21430-21434. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1009947107

Targeted insertion of cysteine by decoding UGA codons with mammalian selenocysteine machinery. / Xu, Xue Ming; Turanov, Anton A.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Yoo, Min Hyuk; Everley, Robert A.; Nandakumar, Renu; Sorokina, Irina; Gygi, Steven P.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 107, No. 50, 14.12.2010, p. 21430-21434.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Xu, XM, Turanov, AA, Carlson, BA, Yoo, MH, Everley, RA, Nandakumar, R, Sorokina, I, Gygi, SP, Gladyshev, VN & Hatfield, DL 2010, 'Targeted insertion of cysteine by decoding UGA codons with mammalian selenocysteine machinery', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 50, pp. 21430-21434. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1009947107
Xu, Xue Ming ; Turanov, Anton A. ; Carlson, Bradley A. ; Yoo, Min Hyuk ; Everley, Robert A. ; Nandakumar, Renu ; Sorokina, Irina ; Gygi, Steven P. ; Gladyshev, Vadim N. ; Hatfield, Dolph L. / Targeted insertion of cysteine by decoding UGA codons with mammalian selenocysteine machinery. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2010 ; Vol. 107, No. 50. pp. 21430-21434.
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