Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to diets using grains grown in various regions of the United States with differing natural Se concentrations and fed to grower–finisher swine

D. C. Mahan, M. Azain, T. D. Crenshaw, G. L. Cromwell, C. R. Dove, S. W. Kim, M. D. Lindemann, P. S. Miller, J. E. Pettigrew, H. H. Stein, E. van Heugten

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Grains grown in various regions of the United States vary in their innate or natural Se contents. A regional study evaluated the effects of adding inorganic Se (sodium selenite) or organic Se (Se yeast) to diets with differing innate Se contents. A 2 × 2 + 1 factorial evaluating 2 Se sources (organic or inorganic) at 2 Se levels (0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg) in 18 total replicates (n = 360 total pigs). A basal diet was fed without supplemental Se and served as the negative (basal) control. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block design in 9 states (Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, and Wisconsin) with each station conducting 2 replicates. Pigs were fed from 25 to approximately 115 kg BW. Similar dietary formulations were used at each station, incorporating a common source of trace mineral and Se premixes. Three pigs per treatment in 16 replicates (n = 240) were bled at 55, 85, and 115 kg BW and serum Se and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined. Three pigs (n = 260) from each treatment pen were killed at 115 kg BW and issues (liver, loin, and hair) were analyzed for Se. The corn Se content from the various states ranged from 0.026 to 0.283 mg Se/kg while the soybean meal Se content ranged from 0.086 to 0.798 mg Se/kg. Tissue and serum Se concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) when supplemental organic Se was fed, whereas serum GSHPx was greater (P < 0.01) as Se level increased. There were linear increases (P < 0.01) in loin and quadratic increases (P < 0.01) in liver and hair Se concentrations as dietary Se level increased within each state. There was a source × level interaction (P < 0.01) for each tissue resulting in a greater increase when organic Se was fed. Serum Se and GSH-Px activity increased (P < 0.01) when both Se sources were fed and plateaued at each state at 0.15 mg Se/kg. There was a high and significant correlation between each tissue Se, serum Se, and GSHPx activity to dietary Se level indicating that those states having greater grain natural Se contents also had greater tissue Se concentrations. These results indicate that a large difference in corn and soybean meal Se concentrations exists between states, that the addition of organic or inorganic Se to these grains increased tissue and serum Se in each state, and that organic Se was incorporated at greater concentrations in the loin, liver, and hair tissues of grower–finisher pigs than inorganic Se.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4991-4997
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of animal science
Volume92
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014

Fingerprint

Sodium Selenite
sodium selenite
Selenium
selenium
Swine
Diet
swine
diet
loins
Serum
glutathione peroxidase
Hair
hairs
Dietary Sodium

Keywords

  • Corn
  • Minerals
  • Pigs
  • Selenium
  • State

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

Cite this

Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to diets using grains grown in various regions of the United States with differing natural Se concentrations and fed to grower–finisher swine. / Mahan, D. C.; Azain, M.; Crenshaw, T. D.; Cromwell, G. L.; Dove, C. R.; Kim, S. W.; Lindemann, M. D.; Miller, P. S.; Pettigrew, J. E.; Stein, H. H.; van Heugten, E.

In: Journal of animal science, Vol. 92, No. 11, 01.11.2014, p. 4991-4997.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mahan, D. C. ; Azain, M. ; Crenshaw, T. D. ; Cromwell, G. L. ; Dove, C. R. ; Kim, S. W. ; Lindemann, M. D. ; Miller, P. S. ; Pettigrew, J. E. ; Stein, H. H. ; van Heugten, E. / Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to diets using grains grown in various regions of the United States with differing natural Se concentrations and fed to grower–finisher swine. In: Journal of animal science. 2014 ; Vol. 92, No. 11. pp. 4991-4997.
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abstract = "Grains grown in various regions of the United States vary in their innate or natural Se contents. A regional study evaluated the effects of adding inorganic Se (sodium selenite) or organic Se (Se yeast) to diets with differing innate Se contents. A 2 × 2 + 1 factorial evaluating 2 Se sources (organic or inorganic) at 2 Se levels (0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg) in 18 total replicates (n = 360 total pigs). A basal diet was fed without supplemental Se and served as the negative (basal) control. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block design in 9 states (Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, and Wisconsin) with each station conducting 2 replicates. Pigs were fed from 25 to approximately 115 kg BW. Similar dietary formulations were used at each station, incorporating a common source of trace mineral and Se premixes. Three pigs per treatment in 16 replicates (n = 240) were bled at 55, 85, and 115 kg BW and serum Se and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined. Three pigs (n = 260) from each treatment pen were killed at 115 kg BW and issues (liver, loin, and hair) were analyzed for Se. The corn Se content from the various states ranged from 0.026 to 0.283 mg Se/kg while the soybean meal Se content ranged from 0.086 to 0.798 mg Se/kg. Tissue and serum Se concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) when supplemental organic Se was fed, whereas serum GSHPx was greater (P < 0.01) as Se level increased. There were linear increases (P < 0.01) in loin and quadratic increases (P < 0.01) in liver and hair Se concentrations as dietary Se level increased within each state. There was a source × level interaction (P < 0.01) for each tissue resulting in a greater increase when organic Se was fed. Serum Se and GSH-Px activity increased (P < 0.01) when both Se sources were fed and plateaued at each state at 0.15 mg Se/kg. There was a high and significant correlation between each tissue Se, serum Se, and GSHPx activity to dietary Se level indicating that those states having greater grain natural Se contents also had greater tissue Se concentrations. These results indicate that a large difference in corn and soybean meal Se concentrations exists between states, that the addition of organic or inorganic Se to these grains increased tissue and serum Se in each state, and that organic Se was incorporated at greater concentrations in the loin, liver, and hair tissues of grower–finisher pigs than inorganic Se.",
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AU - Mahan, D. C.

AU - Azain, M.

AU - Crenshaw, T. D.

AU - Cromwell, G. L.

AU - Dove, C. R.

AU - Kim, S. W.

AU - Lindemann, M. D.

AU - Miller, P. S.

AU - Pettigrew, J. E.

AU - Stein, H. H.

AU - van Heugten, E.

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N2 - Grains grown in various regions of the United States vary in their innate or natural Se contents. A regional study evaluated the effects of adding inorganic Se (sodium selenite) or organic Se (Se yeast) to diets with differing innate Se contents. A 2 × 2 + 1 factorial evaluating 2 Se sources (organic or inorganic) at 2 Se levels (0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg) in 18 total replicates (n = 360 total pigs). A basal diet was fed without supplemental Se and served as the negative (basal) control. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block design in 9 states (Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, and Wisconsin) with each station conducting 2 replicates. Pigs were fed from 25 to approximately 115 kg BW. Similar dietary formulations were used at each station, incorporating a common source of trace mineral and Se premixes. Three pigs per treatment in 16 replicates (n = 240) were bled at 55, 85, and 115 kg BW and serum Se and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined. Three pigs (n = 260) from each treatment pen were killed at 115 kg BW and issues (liver, loin, and hair) were analyzed for Se. The corn Se content from the various states ranged from 0.026 to 0.283 mg Se/kg while the soybean meal Se content ranged from 0.086 to 0.798 mg Se/kg. Tissue and serum Se concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) when supplemental organic Se was fed, whereas serum GSHPx was greater (P < 0.01) as Se level increased. There were linear increases (P < 0.01) in loin and quadratic increases (P < 0.01) in liver and hair Se concentrations as dietary Se level increased within each state. There was a source × level interaction (P < 0.01) for each tissue resulting in a greater increase when organic Se was fed. Serum Se and GSH-Px activity increased (P < 0.01) when both Se sources were fed and plateaued at each state at 0.15 mg Se/kg. There was a high and significant correlation between each tissue Se, serum Se, and GSHPx activity to dietary Se level indicating that those states having greater grain natural Se contents also had greater tissue Se concentrations. These results indicate that a large difference in corn and soybean meal Se concentrations exists between states, that the addition of organic or inorganic Se to these grains increased tissue and serum Se in each state, and that organic Se was incorporated at greater concentrations in the loin, liver, and hair tissues of grower–finisher pigs than inorganic Se.

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