Studies on urinary bladder carcinoma by morphometry, flow cytometry, and light microscopic malignancy grading with special reference to grade II tumours

Kerstin Helander, Bente Kirkhus, Olav Hilmar Iversen, Sonny L. Johansson, Stig Nilsson, Sigmund Vaage, Helle Fjordvang

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15 Scopus citations


Biopsies from 28 patients with urinary bladder carcinoma were investigated by flow cytometry and morphometry. Histopathological grading on 1.5 μm thick glycol methacrylate sections was also performed. Nuclear profile areas, nuclear volume densities and mitotic indices were usually larger in the higher grades of malignancy. All grade I tumours were diploid and all grade III tumours were aneuploid. Out of 13 grade II tumours 8 were diploid and 5 aneuploid. In these latter five cases nuclear profile areas were at the high end of the spectrum. The data show that flow cytometry and morphometry could be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of urinary bladder carcinoma. Our data also suggest that a subdivision of the grade II tumours might be possible and meaningful in the assessment of prognosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)117-126
Number of pages10
JournalVirchows Archiv A Pathological Anatomy and Histopathology
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 1985



  • Flow cytometry
  • Karyometry
  • Morphometry
  • Urinary bladder carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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