Structure, dynamics, and antimicrobial and immune modulatory activities of human LL-23 and its single-residue variants mutated on the basis of homologous primate cathelicidins

Guangshun Wang, Melissa Elliott, Anna L. Cogen, Edward L. Ezell, Richard L. Gallo, Robert E W Hancock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

LL-23 is a natural peptide corresponding to the 23 N-terminal amino acid residues of human host defense cathelicidin LL-37. LL-23 demonstrated, compared to LL-37, a conserved ability to induce the chemokine MCP-1 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a lack of ability to suppress induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and reduced antimicrobial activity. Heteronuclear multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characterization of LL-23 revealed similar secondary structures and backbone dynamics in three membrane-mimetic micelles: SDS, dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), and dioctanoylphosphatidylglycerol. The NMR structure of LL-23 determined in perdeuterated DPC contained a unique serine that segregated the hydrophobic surface of the amphipathic helix into two domains. To improve our understanding, Ser9 of LL-23was changed to either Ala or Val on the basis of homologous primate cathelicidins. These changes made the hydrophobic surface of LL-23 continuous and enhanced antibacterial activity. While identical helical structures did not explain the altered activities, a reduced rate of hydrogen-deuterium exchange from LL-23 to LL-23A9 to LL-23V9 suggested a deeper penetration of LL-23V9 into the interior of the micelles, which correlated with enhanced activities. Moreover, these LL-23 variants had discrete immunomodulatory activities. Both restored the TNF-α dampening activity to the level of LL-37. Furthermore, LL-23A9, like LL-23, maintained superior protective MCP-1 production, while LL-23V9 was strongly immunosuppressive, preventing baseline MCP-1 induction and substantially reducing LPS-stimulated MCP-1 production. Thus, these LL-23 variants, designed on the basis of a structural hot spot, are promising immune modulators that are easier to synthesize and less toxic to mammalian cells than the parent peptide LL-37.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)653-664
Number of pages12
JournalBiochemistry
Volume51
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 17 2012

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Cathelicidins
Micelles
Human Activities
Primates
Lipopolysaccharides
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Biomolecular Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Deuterium
Poisons
Immunosuppressive Agents
Chemokines
Serine
Modulators
Hydrogen
Blood Cells
Blood
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Cells
Cytokines
Membranes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Structure, dynamics, and antimicrobial and immune modulatory activities of human LL-23 and its single-residue variants mutated on the basis of homologous primate cathelicidins. / Wang, Guangshun; Elliott, Melissa; Cogen, Anna L.; Ezell, Edward L.; Gallo, Richard L.; Hancock, Robert E W.

In: Biochemistry, Vol. 51, No. 2, 17.01.2012, p. 653-664.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wang, Guangshun ; Elliott, Melissa ; Cogen, Anna L. ; Ezell, Edward L. ; Gallo, Richard L. ; Hancock, Robert E W. / Structure, dynamics, and antimicrobial and immune modulatory activities of human LL-23 and its single-residue variants mutated on the basis of homologous primate cathelicidins. In: Biochemistry. 2012 ; Vol. 51, No. 2. pp. 653-664.
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abstract = "LL-23 is a natural peptide corresponding to the 23 N-terminal amino acid residues of human host defense cathelicidin LL-37. LL-23 demonstrated, compared to LL-37, a conserved ability to induce the chemokine MCP-1 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a lack of ability to suppress induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and reduced antimicrobial activity. Heteronuclear multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characterization of LL-23 revealed similar secondary structures and backbone dynamics in three membrane-mimetic micelles: SDS, dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), and dioctanoylphosphatidylglycerol. The NMR structure of LL-23 determined in perdeuterated DPC contained a unique serine that segregated the hydrophobic surface of the amphipathic helix into two domains. To improve our understanding, Ser9 of LL-23was changed to either Ala or Val on the basis of homologous primate cathelicidins. These changes made the hydrophobic surface of LL-23 continuous and enhanced antibacterial activity. While identical helical structures did not explain the altered activities, a reduced rate of hydrogen-deuterium exchange from LL-23 to LL-23A9 to LL-23V9 suggested a deeper penetration of LL-23V9 into the interior of the micelles, which correlated with enhanced activities. Moreover, these LL-23 variants had discrete immunomodulatory activities. Both restored the TNF-α dampening activity to the level of LL-37. Furthermore, LL-23A9, like LL-23, maintained superior protective MCP-1 production, while LL-23V9 was strongly immunosuppressive, preventing baseline MCP-1 induction and substantially reducing LPS-stimulated MCP-1 production. Thus, these LL-23 variants, designed on the basis of a structural hot spot, are promising immune modulators that are easier to synthesize and less toxic to mammalian cells than the parent peptide LL-37.",
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AU - Elliott, Melissa

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AU - Hancock, Robert E W

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N2 - LL-23 is a natural peptide corresponding to the 23 N-terminal amino acid residues of human host defense cathelicidin LL-37. LL-23 demonstrated, compared to LL-37, a conserved ability to induce the chemokine MCP-1 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a lack of ability to suppress induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and reduced antimicrobial activity. Heteronuclear multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characterization of LL-23 revealed similar secondary structures and backbone dynamics in three membrane-mimetic micelles: SDS, dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), and dioctanoylphosphatidylglycerol. The NMR structure of LL-23 determined in perdeuterated DPC contained a unique serine that segregated the hydrophobic surface of the amphipathic helix into two domains. To improve our understanding, Ser9 of LL-23was changed to either Ala or Val on the basis of homologous primate cathelicidins. These changes made the hydrophobic surface of LL-23 continuous and enhanced antibacterial activity. While identical helical structures did not explain the altered activities, a reduced rate of hydrogen-deuterium exchange from LL-23 to LL-23A9 to LL-23V9 suggested a deeper penetration of LL-23V9 into the interior of the micelles, which correlated with enhanced activities. Moreover, these LL-23 variants had discrete immunomodulatory activities. Both restored the TNF-α dampening activity to the level of LL-37. Furthermore, LL-23A9, like LL-23, maintained superior protective MCP-1 production, while LL-23V9 was strongly immunosuppressive, preventing baseline MCP-1 induction and substantially reducing LPS-stimulated MCP-1 production. Thus, these LL-23 variants, designed on the basis of a structural hot spot, are promising immune modulators that are easier to synthesize and less toxic to mammalian cells than the parent peptide LL-37.

AB - LL-23 is a natural peptide corresponding to the 23 N-terminal amino acid residues of human host defense cathelicidin LL-37. LL-23 demonstrated, compared to LL-37, a conserved ability to induce the chemokine MCP-1 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a lack of ability to suppress induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and reduced antimicrobial activity. Heteronuclear multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characterization of LL-23 revealed similar secondary structures and backbone dynamics in three membrane-mimetic micelles: SDS, dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), and dioctanoylphosphatidylglycerol. The NMR structure of LL-23 determined in perdeuterated DPC contained a unique serine that segregated the hydrophobic surface of the amphipathic helix into two domains. To improve our understanding, Ser9 of LL-23was changed to either Ala or Val on the basis of homologous primate cathelicidins. These changes made the hydrophobic surface of LL-23 continuous and enhanced antibacterial activity. While identical helical structures did not explain the altered activities, a reduced rate of hydrogen-deuterium exchange from LL-23 to LL-23A9 to LL-23V9 suggested a deeper penetration of LL-23V9 into the interior of the micelles, which correlated with enhanced activities. Moreover, these LL-23 variants had discrete immunomodulatory activities. Both restored the TNF-α dampening activity to the level of LL-37. Furthermore, LL-23A9, like LL-23, maintained superior protective MCP-1 production, while LL-23V9 was strongly immunosuppressive, preventing baseline MCP-1 induction and substantially reducing LPS-stimulated MCP-1 production. Thus, these LL-23 variants, designed on the basis of a structural hot spot, are promising immune modulators that are easier to synthesize and less toxic to mammalian cells than the parent peptide LL-37.

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