Spatial and seasonal distribution of synthetic musks in sewage treatment plants of Shanghai, China

Wenjing Sang, Yalei Zhang, Xuefei Zhou, T. C. Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations


As one kind of emerging contaminant, synthetic musks (SMs) are commonly used in varying amounts in many personal care products and have been detected in different environmental systems. Occurrence and fate of four common SMs [galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN), musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK)] were studied in different sewage treatment plants (STPs) of Shanghai, China among different seasons. Results showed that total dissolved concentrations of the four SMs were 536-3,173 ng/L in influent, 351-2,595 ng/L in effluent and 147-6,839 μg/kg dry weights in sludge. The SM concentrations varied with input sources, STP treatment processes, usage patterns, and different seasons or surveyed years of consumption. There was no significant removal of SMs in most of the sewage samples of the four STPs. Significant positive correlations were observed between concentrations of HHCB and AHTN (R 2 = 0.9062, n = 12, p< 0.05), HHCB and MK (R 2 = 0.7471, n = 8, p< 0.05), as well as AHTN and MK (R 2 = 0.9321, n = 8, p< 0.05) in sludge samples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-209
Number of pages9
JournalWater Science and Technology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jun 26 2012



  • Effluent
  • Influent
  • Sewage treatment plant
  • Sludge
  • Synthetic musks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology

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