Soils contaminated with explosives: Environmental fate and evaluation of state-ofthe-art remediation processes (IUPAC technical eport)

Dimitrios Kalderis, Albert L. Juhasz, Raj Boopathy, Steve Comfort

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An explosion occurs when a large amount of energy is suddenly released. This energy may come from an over-pressurized steam boiler, from the products of a chemical reaction involving explosive materials, or from a nuclear reaction that is uncontrolled. In order for an explosion to occur, there must be a local accumulation of energy at the site of the explosion, which is suddenly released. This release of energy can be dissipated as blast waves, propulsion of debris, or by the emission of thermal and ionizing radiation. Modern explosives or energetic materials are nitrogen-containing organic compounds with the potential for self-oxidation to small gaseous molecules (N2, H2O, and CO2). Explosives are classified as primary or secondary based on their susceptibility of initiation. Primary explosives are highly susceptible to initiation and are often used to ignite secondary explosives, such as TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine), HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane), and tetryl (N-methyl-N-2,4,6-tetranitro -aniline).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1407-1484
Number of pages78
JournalPure and Applied Chemistry
Volume83
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 4 2011

Fingerprint

Remediation
Soils
Explosions
Trinitrotoluene
Nuclear reactions
HMX
Ionizing radiation
Steam
Heat radiation
Organic compounds
Debris
Propulsion
Boilers
Aniline
Chemical reactions
Nitrogen
Oxidation
Molecules

Keywords

  • 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (tnt);
  • Explosives
  • High melting explosive (HMX)
  • Iupac chemistry and the environment division
  • Rapid detention explosive (RDX)
  • Soil contamination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)

Cite this

Soils contaminated with explosives : Environmental fate and evaluation of state-ofthe-art remediation processes (IUPAC technical eport). / Kalderis, Dimitrios; Juhasz, Albert L.; Boopathy, Raj; Comfort, Steve.

In: Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 83, No. 7, 04.07.2011, p. 1407-1484.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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