Soils contaminated with explosives: Environmental fate and evaluation of state-ofthe-art remediation processes (IUPAC technical eport)

Dimitrios Kalderis, Albert L. Juhasz, Raj Boopathy, Steve Comfort

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

76 Scopus citations


An explosion occurs when a large amount of energy is suddenly released. This energy may come from an over-pressurized steam boiler, from the products of a chemical reaction involving explosive materials, or from a nuclear reaction that is uncontrolled. In order for an explosion to occur, there must be a local accumulation of energy at the site of the explosion, which is suddenly released. This release of energy can be dissipated as blast waves, propulsion of debris, or by the emission of thermal and ionizing radiation. Modern explosives or energetic materials are nitrogen-containing organic compounds with the potential for self-oxidation to small gaseous molecules (N2, H2O, and CO2). Explosives are classified as primary or secondary based on their susceptibility of initiation. Primary explosives are highly susceptible to initiation and are often used to ignite secondary explosives, such as TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine), HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane), and tetryl (N-methyl-N-2,4,6-tetranitro -aniline).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1407-1484
Number of pages78
JournalPure and Applied Chemistry
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 4 2011



  • 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (tnt);
  • Explosives
  • High melting explosive (HMX)
  • Iupac chemistry and the environment division
  • Rapid detention explosive (RDX)
  • Soil contamination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)

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