Sex-specific relationships among iron status biomarkers, athletic performance, maturity, and dietary intakes in pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes

Marni E. Shoemaker, Zachary M. Gillen, Brianna D. McKay, Nicholas A. Bohannon, Sydney M. Gibson, Karsten Koehler, Joel T Cramer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among biomarkers of iron status, athletic performance, growth and development, and dietary intakes in pre-adolescent and adolescent male and female athletes. Methods: Two-hundred and forty-nine male (n = 179) (mean ± standard deviation for age = 12.0 ± 2.1 years, height = 156.3 ± 13.9 cm, and weight = 49.1 ± 16.5 kg) and female (n = 70) (12.0 ± 2.2 years, 152.4 ± 12.3 cm, 45.3 ± 14.5 kg) athletes volunteered for capillary blood sample, anthropometric, athletic performance, and dietary intake assessments. Outcomes included maturity offset from peak height velocity, percent body fat, estimated muscle cross-sectional areas, vertical jump height (VJ), broad jump distance (BJ), pro-agility time (PA), L-cone time, 20-yard dash time (20YD), power push up (PPU) force, dietary intakes, and ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. Results: Athletic performance was consistently correlated with Hb in males (r =.237-.375, p < 0.001-0.05) and with sTfR (r =.521-.649, p < 0.001-0.004) and iron intake (r =.397-.568, p = 0.001-0.027) in females. There were no relationships between dietary intakes and ferritin, sTfR, or Hb (p > 0.05). After partialing out age and height, VJ, PA, LC, and 20YD remained correlated with Hb in males (|r Hb,y.Age| =.208-.322, p = 0.001-0.041; |r Hb,y.Height| =.211-.321, p = 0.001-0.038). After partialing out iron intake, PA and LC remained correlated with sTfR in females (|r sTfR,y.ironintake| =.516-.569, p = 0.014-0.028). Conclusions: Iron status biomarkers demonstrated sex-specific relationships with anaerobic exercise performance in youth athletes, which may be more dependent on maturity status and dietary intake than age. Moderate relationships between sTfR and athletic performance in adolescent female athletes emphasizes the importance of iron intake in this demographic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number42
JournalJournal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 18 2019

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athletic performance
Athletic Performance
athletes
Athletes
food intake
biomarkers
Transferrin Receptors
Iron
Biomarkers
transferrin
hemoglobin
iron
Hemoglobins
gender
receptors
blood capillaries
ferritin
Ferritins
Growth and Development
body fat

Keywords

  • Athletic performance
  • Exercise
  • Iron
  • Nutrition
  • Youth athletes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Sex-specific relationships among iron status biomarkers, athletic performance, maturity, and dietary intakes in pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes. / Shoemaker, Marni E.; Gillen, Zachary M.; McKay, Brianna D.; Bohannon, Nicholas A.; Gibson, Sydney M.; Koehler, Karsten; Cramer, Joel T.

In: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, Vol. 16, No. 1, 42, 18.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shoemaker, Marni E. ; Gillen, Zachary M. ; McKay, Brianna D. ; Bohannon, Nicholas A. ; Gibson, Sydney M. ; Koehler, Karsten ; Cramer, Joel T. / Sex-specific relationships among iron status biomarkers, athletic performance, maturity, and dietary intakes in pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes. In: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2019 ; Vol. 16, No. 1.
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AU - McKay, Brianna D.

AU - Bohannon, Nicholas A.

AU - Gibson, Sydney M.

AU - Koehler, Karsten

AU - Cramer, Joel T

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N2 - Background: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among biomarkers of iron status, athletic performance, growth and development, and dietary intakes in pre-adolescent and adolescent male and female athletes. Methods: Two-hundred and forty-nine male (n = 179) (mean ± standard deviation for age = 12.0 ± 2.1 years, height = 156.3 ± 13.9 cm, and weight = 49.1 ± 16.5 kg) and female (n = 70) (12.0 ± 2.2 years, 152.4 ± 12.3 cm, 45.3 ± 14.5 kg) athletes volunteered for capillary blood sample, anthropometric, athletic performance, and dietary intake assessments. Outcomes included maturity offset from peak height velocity, percent body fat, estimated muscle cross-sectional areas, vertical jump height (VJ), broad jump distance (BJ), pro-agility time (PA), L-cone time, 20-yard dash time (20YD), power push up (PPU) force, dietary intakes, and ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. Results: Athletic performance was consistently correlated with Hb in males (r =.237-.375, p < 0.001-0.05) and with sTfR (r =.521-.649, p < 0.001-0.004) and iron intake (r =.397-.568, p = 0.001-0.027) in females. There were no relationships between dietary intakes and ferritin, sTfR, or Hb (p > 0.05). After partialing out age and height, VJ, PA, LC, and 20YD remained correlated with Hb in males (|r Hb,y.Age| =.208-.322, p = 0.001-0.041; |r Hb,y.Height| =.211-.321, p = 0.001-0.038). After partialing out iron intake, PA and LC remained correlated with sTfR in females (|r sTfR,y.ironintake| =.516-.569, p = 0.014-0.028). Conclusions: Iron status biomarkers demonstrated sex-specific relationships with anaerobic exercise performance in youth athletes, which may be more dependent on maturity status and dietary intake than age. Moderate relationships between sTfR and athletic performance in adolescent female athletes emphasizes the importance of iron intake in this demographic.

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KW - Exercise

KW - Iron

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