Sequences related to transposable elements and bacteriophages flank avirulence genes of Pseudomonas syringae

Jihyun F. Kim, Amy O. Charkowski, James R. Alfano, Alan Collmer, Steven V. Beer

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Examination of the reported nucleotide sequences containing avirulence genes of Pseudomonas syringae pathovars suggested that avrA, avrB, avrC, avrPphC, avrRpm1, and avrPpiAI are bordered by sequences similar to those of transposable elements of gram-negative bacteria. Repeat sequences and fragments of at least two different insertion sequences elements were identified at the ends of avrA and avrB, implying multiple transposition events for these areas. A DNA region homologous to a bacteriophage sequence was found upstream of avrPto. The linkage of various virulence/a virulence genes of animal- and plant-pathogenic bacteria with transposable elements and bacteriophage sequences, together with the presence of several of these genes on plasmids, supports, the idea of horizontal transfer and frequent exchange of virulence/avirulence genes among bacterial pathogens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1247-1252
Number of pages6
JournalMolecular Plant-Microbe Interactions
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1998



  • Evolution
  • Hypertensive reaction
  • Pathogenicity island
  • Transposon
  • Type III protein secretion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science

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