Sensitive and simplified analysis of natural and synthetic steroids in water and solids using on-line solid-phase extraction and microwave-assisted solvent extraction coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry atmospheric pressure photoionization

Daniel D Snow, Teyona Damon-Powell, Sathaporn Onanong, David A. Cassada

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40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Analytical methods for the determination of several natural and synthetic steroids in water and solid samples were developed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in positive mode was used as the source which appeared to reduce background and interferences as compared to electrospray ionization. Toluene was identified as the most appropriate dopant and its concentration optimized to enhance ionization efficiency. Method detection limits were in the low-nanogram-per- liter range for water samples using on-line solid-phase extraction and near 0.2 ng/g using microwave-assisted solvent extraction for solid samples. This on-line method, using APPI as a source and toluene as a dopant, is beneficial as it saves time due to on-line extraction and reduces interference and matrix effects using gas-phase photoionization. Groundwater, wastewater, runoff, and soil samples were collected and analyzed using the method indicating that traces of several androgens, estrogens, and other steroid-like compounds do occur in samples impacted by animal waste. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1759-1771
Number of pages13
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Volume405
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

Fingerprint

Photoionization
Atmospheric Pressure
Solid Phase Extraction
Liquid chromatography
Solvent extraction
Microwaves
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Liquid Chromatography
Atmospheric pressure
Mass spectrometry
Steroids
Toluene
Water
Doping (additives)
Electrospray ionization
Runoff
Androgens
Ionization
Groundwater
Estrogens

Keywords

  • Atmospheric pressure photoionization
  • Environmental
  • Mass spectrometry
  • On-line solid-phase extraction
  • Steroid hormones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry

Cite this

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abstract = "Analytical methods for the determination of several natural and synthetic steroids in water and solid samples were developed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in positive mode was used as the source which appeared to reduce background and interferences as compared to electrospray ionization. Toluene was identified as the most appropriate dopant and its concentration optimized to enhance ionization efficiency. Method detection limits were in the low-nanogram-per- liter range for water samples using on-line solid-phase extraction and near 0.2 ng/g using microwave-assisted solvent extraction for solid samples. This on-line method, using APPI as a source and toluene as a dopant, is beneficial as it saves time due to on-line extraction and reduces interference and matrix effects using gas-phase photoionization. Groundwater, wastewater, runoff, and soil samples were collected and analyzed using the method indicating that traces of several androgens, estrogens, and other steroid-like compounds do occur in samples impacted by animal waste. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]",
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AU - Damon-Powell, Teyona

AU - Onanong, Sathaporn

AU - Cassada, David A.

PY - 2013/1/1

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N2 - Analytical methods for the determination of several natural and synthetic steroids in water and solid samples were developed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in positive mode was used as the source which appeared to reduce background and interferences as compared to electrospray ionization. Toluene was identified as the most appropriate dopant and its concentration optimized to enhance ionization efficiency. Method detection limits were in the low-nanogram-per- liter range for water samples using on-line solid-phase extraction and near 0.2 ng/g using microwave-assisted solvent extraction for solid samples. This on-line method, using APPI as a source and toluene as a dopant, is beneficial as it saves time due to on-line extraction and reduces interference and matrix effects using gas-phase photoionization. Groundwater, wastewater, runoff, and soil samples were collected and analyzed using the method indicating that traces of several androgens, estrogens, and other steroid-like compounds do occur in samples impacted by animal waste. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

AB - Analytical methods for the determination of several natural and synthetic steroids in water and solid samples were developed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in positive mode was used as the source which appeared to reduce background and interferences as compared to electrospray ionization. Toluene was identified as the most appropriate dopant and its concentration optimized to enhance ionization efficiency. Method detection limits were in the low-nanogram-per- liter range for water samples using on-line solid-phase extraction and near 0.2 ng/g using microwave-assisted solvent extraction for solid samples. This on-line method, using APPI as a source and toluene as a dopant, is beneficial as it saves time due to on-line extraction and reduces interference and matrix effects using gas-phase photoionization. Groundwater, wastewater, runoff, and soil samples were collected and analyzed using the method indicating that traces of several androgens, estrogens, and other steroid-like compounds do occur in samples impacted by animal waste. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

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