Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-infected pigs with different shedding levels exhibit distinct clinical, peripheral cytokine and transcriptomic immune response phenotypes

Susan M. Knetter, Shawn M.D. Bearson, Ting Hua Huang, Dason Kurkiewicz, Martine Schroyen, Dan Nettleton, Daniel Berman, Valerie Cohen, Joan K. Lunney, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Christopher K. Tuggle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Scopus citations


Foodborne salmonellosis costs the US $2.7 billion/year, including $100.0 million in annual losses to pork producers. Pigs colonized with Salmonella are usually asymptomatic with varied severity and duration of fecal shedding. Thus, understanding the responses that result in less shedding may provide a mechanism for control. Fifty-four pigs were inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) and clinical signs, fecal ST shedding, growth performance, peripheral cytokines and whole blood gene expression were measured. Persistently shedding (PS) pigs had longer pyrexia and elevated serum IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ compared with low shedding (LS) pigs, while LS pigs had brief pyrexia, less shedding that decreased more rapidly and greater serum CXCL8 than PS pigs. The PS pigs up-regulated genes involved with the STAT1, IFNB1 and IFN-γ networks on d 2, while up-regulation of genes involved in immune response regulation were only detected in LS pigs. This is the first study to examine host responses to ST infection at a clinical, performance, cytokine and transcriptomic level. The results indicated that pigs with different shedding outcomes developed distinct immune responses within the first 2 d of ST infection, and elucidated alternative mechanisms that could be targeted to reduce Salmonella shedding and spread.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)227-241
Number of pages15
JournalInnate Immunity
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Apr 15 2015



  • Cytokine
  • Salmonella
  • immune response
  • swine
  • transcriptomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this