Role of whole grains versus fruits and vegetables in reducing subclinical inflammation and promoting gastrointestinal health in individuals affected by overweight and obesity

A randomized controlled trial

Julianne C. Kopf, Mallory J. Suhr, Jennifer L Clarke, Seong Il Eyun, Jean-Jack M Riethoven, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Devin J Rose

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Whole grains (WG) and fruits and vegetables (FV) have been shown to reduce the risk of metabolic disease, possibly via modulation of the gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of increasing intake of either WG or FV on inflammatory markers and gut microbiota composition. Methods: A randomized parallel arm feeding trial was completed on forty-nine subjects with overweight or obesity and low intakes of FV and WG. Individuals were randomized into three groups (3 servings/d provided): WG, FV, and a control (refined grains). Stool and blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks. Inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)] were measured. Stool sample analysis included short/branched chain fatty acids (S/BCFA) and microbiota composition. Results: There was a significant decrease in LBP for participants on the WG (- 0.2 μg/mL, p = 0.02) and FV (- 0.2 μg/mL, p = 0.005) diets, with no change in those on the control diet (0.1 μg/mL, p = 0.08). The FV diet induced a significant change in IL-6 (- 1.5 pg/mL, p = 0.006), but no significant change was observed for the other treatments (control, - 0.009 pg/mL, p = 0.99; WG, - 0.29, p = 0.68). The WG diet resulted in a significant decrease in TNF-α (- 3.7 pg/mL; p < 0.001), whereas no significant effects were found for those on the other diets (control, - 0.6 pg/mL, p = 0.6; FV, - 1.4 pg/mL, p = 0.2). The treatments induced individualized changes in microbiota composition such that treatment group differences were not identified, except for a significant increase in α-diversity in the FV group. The proportions of Clostridiales (Firmicutes phylum) at baseline were correlated with the magnitude of change in LBP during the study. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that WG and FV intake can have positive effects on metabolic health; however, different markers of inflammation were reduced on each diet suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects were facilitated via different mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory effects were not related to changes in gut microbiota composition during the intervention, but were correlated with microbiota composition at baseline. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02602496, Nov 4, 2017.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number72
JournalNutrition Journal
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 30 2018

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Vegetables
Fruit
Randomized Controlled Trials
Obesity
Inflammation
Health
Diet
Microbiota
Interleukin-6
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Whole Grains
Volatile Fatty Acids
Metabolic Diseases
C-Reactive Protein
Gastrointestinal Microbiome
lipopolysaccharide-binding protein

Keywords

  • C-reactive protein
  • Gut microbiota
  • Interleukin-6
  • Lipopolysaccharide
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Short chain fatty acids
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

@article{cb03be86b68b4a2cb6ef86de2e98ac3c,
title = "Role of whole grains versus fruits and vegetables in reducing subclinical inflammation and promoting gastrointestinal health in individuals affected by overweight and obesity: A randomized controlled trial",
abstract = "Background: Whole grains (WG) and fruits and vegetables (FV) have been shown to reduce the risk of metabolic disease, possibly via modulation of the gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of increasing intake of either WG or FV on inflammatory markers and gut microbiota composition. Methods: A randomized parallel arm feeding trial was completed on forty-nine subjects with overweight or obesity and low intakes of FV and WG. Individuals were randomized into three groups (3 servings/d provided): WG, FV, and a control (refined grains). Stool and blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks. Inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)] were measured. Stool sample analysis included short/branched chain fatty acids (S/BCFA) and microbiota composition. Results: There was a significant decrease in LBP for participants on the WG (- 0.2 μg/mL, p = 0.02) and FV (- 0.2 μg/mL, p = 0.005) diets, with no change in those on the control diet (0.1 μg/mL, p = 0.08). The FV diet induced a significant change in IL-6 (- 1.5 pg/mL, p = 0.006), but no significant change was observed for the other treatments (control, - 0.009 pg/mL, p = 0.99; WG, - 0.29, p = 0.68). The WG diet resulted in a significant decrease in TNF-α (- 3.7 pg/mL; p < 0.001), whereas no significant effects were found for those on the other diets (control, - 0.6 pg/mL, p = 0.6; FV, - 1.4 pg/mL, p = 0.2). The treatments induced individualized changes in microbiota composition such that treatment group differences were not identified, except for a significant increase in α-diversity in the FV group. The proportions of Clostridiales (Firmicutes phylum) at baseline were correlated with the magnitude of change in LBP during the study. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that WG and FV intake can have positive effects on metabolic health; however, different markers of inflammation were reduced on each diet suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects were facilitated via different mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory effects were not related to changes in gut microbiota composition during the intervention, but were correlated with microbiota composition at baseline. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02602496, Nov 4, 2017.",
keywords = "C-reactive protein, Gut microbiota, Interleukin-6, Lipopolysaccharide, Metabolic syndrome, Short chain fatty acids, Tumor necrosis factor-α",
author = "Kopf, {Julianne C.} and Suhr, {Mallory J.} and Clarke, {Jennifer L} and Eyun, {Seong Il} and Riethoven, {Jean-Jack M} and Amanda Ramer-Tait and Rose, {Devin J}",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
day = "30",
doi = "10.1186/s12937-018-0381-7",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "17",
journal = "Nutrition Journal",
issn = "1475-2891",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Role of whole grains versus fruits and vegetables in reducing subclinical inflammation and promoting gastrointestinal health in individuals affected by overweight and obesity

T2 - A randomized controlled trial

AU - Kopf, Julianne C.

AU - Suhr, Mallory J.

AU - Clarke, Jennifer L

AU - Eyun, Seong Il

AU - Riethoven, Jean-Jack M

AU - Ramer-Tait, Amanda

AU - Rose, Devin J

PY - 2018/7/30

Y1 - 2018/7/30

N2 - Background: Whole grains (WG) and fruits and vegetables (FV) have been shown to reduce the risk of metabolic disease, possibly via modulation of the gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of increasing intake of either WG or FV on inflammatory markers and gut microbiota composition. Methods: A randomized parallel arm feeding trial was completed on forty-nine subjects with overweight or obesity and low intakes of FV and WG. Individuals were randomized into three groups (3 servings/d provided): WG, FV, and a control (refined grains). Stool and blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks. Inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)] were measured. Stool sample analysis included short/branched chain fatty acids (S/BCFA) and microbiota composition. Results: There was a significant decrease in LBP for participants on the WG (- 0.2 μg/mL, p = 0.02) and FV (- 0.2 μg/mL, p = 0.005) diets, with no change in those on the control diet (0.1 μg/mL, p = 0.08). The FV diet induced a significant change in IL-6 (- 1.5 pg/mL, p = 0.006), but no significant change was observed for the other treatments (control, - 0.009 pg/mL, p = 0.99; WG, - 0.29, p = 0.68). The WG diet resulted in a significant decrease in TNF-α (- 3.7 pg/mL; p < 0.001), whereas no significant effects were found for those on the other diets (control, - 0.6 pg/mL, p = 0.6; FV, - 1.4 pg/mL, p = 0.2). The treatments induced individualized changes in microbiota composition such that treatment group differences were not identified, except for a significant increase in α-diversity in the FV group. The proportions of Clostridiales (Firmicutes phylum) at baseline were correlated with the magnitude of change in LBP during the study. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that WG and FV intake can have positive effects on metabolic health; however, different markers of inflammation were reduced on each diet suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects were facilitated via different mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory effects were not related to changes in gut microbiota composition during the intervention, but were correlated with microbiota composition at baseline. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02602496, Nov 4, 2017.

AB - Background: Whole grains (WG) and fruits and vegetables (FV) have been shown to reduce the risk of metabolic disease, possibly via modulation of the gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of increasing intake of either WG or FV on inflammatory markers and gut microbiota composition. Methods: A randomized parallel arm feeding trial was completed on forty-nine subjects with overweight or obesity and low intakes of FV and WG. Individuals were randomized into three groups (3 servings/d provided): WG, FV, and a control (refined grains). Stool and blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks. Inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)] were measured. Stool sample analysis included short/branched chain fatty acids (S/BCFA) and microbiota composition. Results: There was a significant decrease in LBP for participants on the WG (- 0.2 μg/mL, p = 0.02) and FV (- 0.2 μg/mL, p = 0.005) diets, with no change in those on the control diet (0.1 μg/mL, p = 0.08). The FV diet induced a significant change in IL-6 (- 1.5 pg/mL, p = 0.006), but no significant change was observed for the other treatments (control, - 0.009 pg/mL, p = 0.99; WG, - 0.29, p = 0.68). The WG diet resulted in a significant decrease in TNF-α (- 3.7 pg/mL; p < 0.001), whereas no significant effects were found for those on the other diets (control, - 0.6 pg/mL, p = 0.6; FV, - 1.4 pg/mL, p = 0.2). The treatments induced individualized changes in microbiota composition such that treatment group differences were not identified, except for a significant increase in α-diversity in the FV group. The proportions of Clostridiales (Firmicutes phylum) at baseline were correlated with the magnitude of change in LBP during the study. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that WG and FV intake can have positive effects on metabolic health; however, different markers of inflammation were reduced on each diet suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects were facilitated via different mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory effects were not related to changes in gut microbiota composition during the intervention, but were correlated with microbiota composition at baseline. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02602496, Nov 4, 2017.

KW - C-reactive protein

KW - Gut microbiota

KW - Interleukin-6

KW - Lipopolysaccharide

KW - Metabolic syndrome

KW - Short chain fatty acids

KW - Tumor necrosis factor-α

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U2 - 10.1186/s12937-018-0381-7

DO - 10.1186/s12937-018-0381-7

M3 - Article

VL - 17

JO - Nutrition Journal

JF - Nutrition Journal

SN - 1475-2891

IS - 1

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ER -