Scientific and engineering advances in recent years present new and significant challenges to the materials processing industry. There is an acute need to develop new manufacturing methods and improve existing techniques which are capable of economically fabricating advanced materials. Nontraditional Manufacturing (NTM) processes are used to produce geometrically complex and highly accurate parts from modern materials such as superalloys, ceramics, plastics, fiber reinforced composites, and textiles in industries as diverse as aerospace, automotive, and electronics. These nontraditional fabrication processes are well suited to monitoring and adaptive control, reduce the number of steps in the machining process, and lower the quantity of rejected parts. This paper comprehensively reviews the state of the art of NTM. Over 30 NTM processes are currently in use or undergoing development, however many of these processes are subsets or hybrids of another NTM process. This paper reviews the process mechanisms, control and capability of the major NTM processes. The focus here is on the future promise of NTM within the context of the overall future manufacturing environment. Issues considered here include integration with FMS, CAD/CAM, and CNC; hybrid NTM processes and the combination of NTM with traditional techniques; environmental impact concerns; and the economic benefits of NTM.