Ritual-based behavior that reinforces hegemonic masculinity in golf: Variations in women golfers' responses

Lee Phillip McGinnis, James W Gentry, Julia McQuillan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Scopus citations


Golf is male dominated and consists of rituals and ritualized behaviors that both reflect and help create hegemonic masculinity. Using in-depth interviews with amateur committed women golfers, we explored how women negotiated masculinized rituals in golf. Our data indicated three ways: (a) accommodating (i.e., acknowledging masculine rituals and working around them), (b) unapologetic (i.e., challenging masculine rituals that threaten entitlement to golf and attempting to create women inclusive alternatives), and (c) remaining unaware (i.e., focusing on golf as a sport and ignoring or denying masculine dimensions of golf rituals). Many of the women golfers studied experienced communitas (i.e., a heightened sense of community), but not at the same level of engagement as most male golfers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-36
Number of pages18
JournalLeisure Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 5 2009



  • Communitas
  • Gender
  • Golf
  • Leisure entitlement
  • Rituals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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