Risk index for predicting perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, or death risk in asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy

Prateek K. Gupta, Bala Ramanan, Jason N Mactaggart, Abhishek Sundaram, Xiang Fang, Himani Gupta, Jason M Johanning, Iraklis I Pipinos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: The latest guidelines recommend performance of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on asymptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis, only if the combined perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death risk is ≤3%. Our objective was to develop and validate a risk index to estimate the combined risk of perioperative stroke, MI, or death in asymptomatic patients undergoing elective CEA. Methods: Asymptomatic patients who underwent an elective CEA (n = 17,692) were identified from the 2005-2010 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a multicenter, prospective database. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed with primary outcome of interest being the composite of any stroke, MI, or death during the 30-day periprocedural period. Bootstrapping was used for internal validation. A risk index was created by assigning weighted points to each predictor using the β-coefficients from the regression analysis. Results: Fifty-eight percent of the patients were men with a median age of 72 years. Thirty-day incidences of stroke, MI, and death were 0.9% (n = 167), 0.6% (n = 108), and 0.4% (n = 72), respectively. The combined 30-day stroke, MI, or death incidence was 1.8% (n = 324). On multivariable analysis, six independent predictors were identified and a risk index created by assigning weighted points to each predictor using the β-coefficients from the regression analysis. The predictors included age in years (<60: 0 point; 60-69: -1 point; 70-79: -1 point; ≥80: 2 points), dyspnea (2 points), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (3 points), previous peripheral revascularization or amputation (3 points), recent angina within 1 month (4 points), and dependent functional status (5 points). Patients were classified as low (<3%), intermediate (3%-6%), or high (>6%) risk for combined 30-day stroke, MI, or death, based on a total point score of <4, 4-7, and >7, respectively. There were 15,249 patients (86.2%) in the low-risk category, 2233 (12.6%) in the intermediate-risk category, and 210 (1.2%) in the high-risk category. Conclusions: The validated risk index can help identify asymptomatic patients who are at greatest risk for 30-day stroke, MI, and death after CEA, thereby aiding patient selection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)318-326
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of vascular surgery
Volume57
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2013

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Carotid Endarterectomy
Stroke
Myocardial Infarction
Regression Analysis
Carotid Stenosis
Incidence
Quality Improvement
Patient Selection
Logistic Models
Databases
Guidelines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Risk index for predicting perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, or death risk in asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. / Gupta, Prateek K.; Ramanan, Bala; Mactaggart, Jason N; Sundaram, Abhishek; Fang, Xiang; Gupta, Himani; Johanning, Jason M; Pipinos, Iraklis I.

In: Journal of vascular surgery, Vol. 57, No. 2, 01.02.2013, p. 318-326.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective: The latest guidelines recommend performance of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on asymptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis, only if the combined perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death risk is ≤3{\%}. Our objective was to develop and validate a risk index to estimate the combined risk of perioperative stroke, MI, or death in asymptomatic patients undergoing elective CEA. Methods: Asymptomatic patients who underwent an elective CEA (n = 17,692) were identified from the 2005-2010 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a multicenter, prospective database. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed with primary outcome of interest being the composite of any stroke, MI, or death during the 30-day periprocedural period. Bootstrapping was used for internal validation. A risk index was created by assigning weighted points to each predictor using the β-coefficients from the regression analysis. Results: Fifty-eight percent of the patients were men with a median age of 72 years. Thirty-day incidences of stroke, MI, and death were 0.9{\%} (n = 167), 0.6{\%} (n = 108), and 0.4{\%} (n = 72), respectively. The combined 30-day stroke, MI, or death incidence was 1.8{\%} (n = 324). On multivariable analysis, six independent predictors were identified and a risk index created by assigning weighted points to each predictor using the β-coefficients from the regression analysis. The predictors included age in years (<60: 0 point; 60-69: -1 point; 70-79: -1 point; ≥80: 2 points), dyspnea (2 points), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (3 points), previous peripheral revascularization or amputation (3 points), recent angina within 1 month (4 points), and dependent functional status (5 points). Patients were classified as low (<3{\%}), intermediate (3{\%}-6{\%}), or high (>6{\%}) risk for combined 30-day stroke, MI, or death, based on a total point score of <4, 4-7, and >7, respectively. There were 15,249 patients (86.2{\%}) in the low-risk category, 2233 (12.6{\%}) in the intermediate-risk category, and 210 (1.2{\%}) in the high-risk category. Conclusions: The validated risk index can help identify asymptomatic patients who are at greatest risk for 30-day stroke, MI, and death after CEA, thereby aiding patient selection.",
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AU - Gupta, Prateek K.

AU - Ramanan, Bala

AU - Mactaggart, Jason N

AU - Sundaram, Abhishek

AU - Fang, Xiang

AU - Gupta, Himani

AU - Johanning, Jason M

AU - Pipinos, Iraklis I

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N2 - Objective: The latest guidelines recommend performance of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on asymptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis, only if the combined perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death risk is ≤3%. Our objective was to develop and validate a risk index to estimate the combined risk of perioperative stroke, MI, or death in asymptomatic patients undergoing elective CEA. Methods: Asymptomatic patients who underwent an elective CEA (n = 17,692) were identified from the 2005-2010 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a multicenter, prospective database. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed with primary outcome of interest being the composite of any stroke, MI, or death during the 30-day periprocedural period. Bootstrapping was used for internal validation. A risk index was created by assigning weighted points to each predictor using the β-coefficients from the regression analysis. Results: Fifty-eight percent of the patients were men with a median age of 72 years. Thirty-day incidences of stroke, MI, and death were 0.9% (n = 167), 0.6% (n = 108), and 0.4% (n = 72), respectively. The combined 30-day stroke, MI, or death incidence was 1.8% (n = 324). On multivariable analysis, six independent predictors were identified and a risk index created by assigning weighted points to each predictor using the β-coefficients from the regression analysis. The predictors included age in years (<60: 0 point; 60-69: -1 point; 70-79: -1 point; ≥80: 2 points), dyspnea (2 points), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (3 points), previous peripheral revascularization or amputation (3 points), recent angina within 1 month (4 points), and dependent functional status (5 points). Patients were classified as low (<3%), intermediate (3%-6%), or high (>6%) risk for combined 30-day stroke, MI, or death, based on a total point score of <4, 4-7, and >7, respectively. There were 15,249 patients (86.2%) in the low-risk category, 2233 (12.6%) in the intermediate-risk category, and 210 (1.2%) in the high-risk category. Conclusions: The validated risk index can help identify asymptomatic patients who are at greatest risk for 30-day stroke, MI, and death after CEA, thereby aiding patient selection.

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