Review Recent Advancements in the Biosynthetic Mechanisms for Polyketide-Derived Mycotoxins

Justin Huffman, Ryan Gerber, Liangcheng Du

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

62 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Polyketides (PKs) are a large group of natural products produced by microorganisms and plants. They are biopolymers of acetate and other short carboxylates and are biosynthesized by multifunctional enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). This review discusses the biosynthesis of four toxic PK, aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins (OTs), and zearalenone. These metabolites are structurally diverse and differ in their mechanisms of toxicity. However, they are all of concern in food safety and agriculture because of their toxic properties and their frequent accumulation in crops used for food and feed. The focus is on the recent advancements in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms for the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. Several of the mycotoxin PKSs have been genetically and biochemically studied while other PKSs remain to be investigated. Multiple post-PKS modifications are often required for the maturation of the mycotoxins. Many of these modification steps for aflatoxins and fumonisins are well established while the post-PKS modifications for zearalenone and OTs remain to be biochemically characterized. More efforts are needed to completely illustrate the biosynthetic mechanisms for this important group of PKs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)764-776
Number of pages13
JournalBiopolymers
Volume93
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2010

Fingerprint

Aflatoxins
Polyketide Synthases
Polyketides
Mycotoxins
Biosynthesis
Food safety
Biopolymers
Zearalenone
Fumonisins
Ochratoxins
Metabolites
Microorganisms
Agriculture
Poisons
Crops
Toxicity
Enzymes
Multifunctional Enzymes
Food Safety
Biological Products

Keywords

  • Biosynthetic mechanism
  • Fungal metabolites
  • Mycotoxins
  • Polyketides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • Organic Chemistry

Cite this

Review Recent Advancements in the Biosynthetic Mechanisms for Polyketide-Derived Mycotoxins. / Huffman, Justin; Gerber, Ryan; Du, Liangcheng.

In: Biopolymers, Vol. 93, No. 9, 01.09.2010, p. 764-776.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

@article{c5d29b9f5865425596c5da1eb168cd03,
title = "Review Recent Advancements in the Biosynthetic Mechanisms for Polyketide-Derived Mycotoxins",
abstract = "Polyketides (PKs) are a large group of natural products produced by microorganisms and plants. They are biopolymers of acetate and other short carboxylates and are biosynthesized by multifunctional enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). This review discusses the biosynthesis of four toxic PK, aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins (OTs), and zearalenone. These metabolites are structurally diverse and differ in their mechanisms of toxicity. However, they are all of concern in food safety and agriculture because of their toxic properties and their frequent accumulation in crops used for food and feed. The focus is on the recent advancements in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms for the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. Several of the mycotoxin PKSs have been genetically and biochemically studied while other PKSs remain to be investigated. Multiple post-PKS modifications are often required for the maturation of the mycotoxins. Many of these modification steps for aflatoxins and fumonisins are well established while the post-PKS modifications for zearalenone and OTs remain to be biochemically characterized. More efforts are needed to completely illustrate the biosynthetic mechanisms for this important group of PKs.",
keywords = "Biosynthetic mechanism, Fungal metabolites, Mycotoxins, Polyketides",
author = "Justin Huffman and Ryan Gerber and Liangcheng Du",
year = "2010",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/bip.21483",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "93",
pages = "764--776",
journal = "Biopolymers",
issn = "0006-3525",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Inc.",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Review Recent Advancements in the Biosynthetic Mechanisms for Polyketide-Derived Mycotoxins

AU - Huffman, Justin

AU - Gerber, Ryan

AU - Du, Liangcheng

PY - 2010/9/1

Y1 - 2010/9/1

N2 - Polyketides (PKs) are a large group of natural products produced by microorganisms and plants. They are biopolymers of acetate and other short carboxylates and are biosynthesized by multifunctional enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). This review discusses the biosynthesis of four toxic PK, aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins (OTs), and zearalenone. These metabolites are structurally diverse and differ in their mechanisms of toxicity. However, they are all of concern in food safety and agriculture because of their toxic properties and their frequent accumulation in crops used for food and feed. The focus is on the recent advancements in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms for the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. Several of the mycotoxin PKSs have been genetically and biochemically studied while other PKSs remain to be investigated. Multiple post-PKS modifications are often required for the maturation of the mycotoxins. Many of these modification steps for aflatoxins and fumonisins are well established while the post-PKS modifications for zearalenone and OTs remain to be biochemically characterized. More efforts are needed to completely illustrate the biosynthetic mechanisms for this important group of PKs.

AB - Polyketides (PKs) are a large group of natural products produced by microorganisms and plants. They are biopolymers of acetate and other short carboxylates and are biosynthesized by multifunctional enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). This review discusses the biosynthesis of four toxic PK, aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins (OTs), and zearalenone. These metabolites are structurally diverse and differ in their mechanisms of toxicity. However, they are all of concern in food safety and agriculture because of their toxic properties and their frequent accumulation in crops used for food and feed. The focus is on the recent advancements in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms for the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. Several of the mycotoxin PKSs have been genetically and biochemically studied while other PKSs remain to be investigated. Multiple post-PKS modifications are often required for the maturation of the mycotoxins. Many of these modification steps for aflatoxins and fumonisins are well established while the post-PKS modifications for zearalenone and OTs remain to be biochemically characterized. More efforts are needed to completely illustrate the biosynthetic mechanisms for this important group of PKs.

KW - Biosynthetic mechanism

KW - Fungal metabolites

KW - Mycotoxins

KW - Polyketides

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77954652171&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77954652171&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/bip.21483

DO - 10.1002/bip.21483

M3 - Review article

C2 - 20578001

AN - SCOPUS:77954652171

VL - 93

SP - 764

EP - 776

JO - Biopolymers

JF - Biopolymers

SN - 0006-3525

IS - 9

ER -