Repeated cooking and freezing of whole wheat flour increases resistant starch with beneficial impacts on in vitro fecal fermentation properties

Jennifer A. Arcila, Devin J. Rose

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Resistant starch (RS) has shown benefits to gastrointestinal health, but it is present in only small amounts in most grain-based foods. The purpose of this study was to increase RS in whole wheat flour to improve its potential health benefits. Zero to 7 cycles of cooking (20 min, boiling water) and freezing (-18 °C, 23 h) of whole wheat flour in water (1:15 %w/v) were performed. Increasing cooking-freezing cycles increased RS from 1.03 to 8.07% during in vitro starch digestion. During in vitro fecal fermentation, increasing cooking-freezing cycles increased short chain fatty acids, mainly propionate. Increases in butyrate were also noted during the first 8 h of fermentation. All flours resulted in significant increases in Bifidobacterium of >0.5 log during fermentation compared to baseline. Thus, even modest increases in the RS content of whole wheat flour modulated the metabolic activity of gut microbiota to increase production of beneficial metabolites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)230-236
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Functional Foods
Volume12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Fingerprint

whole wheat flour
resistant starch
Cooking
Flour
Starch
Freezing
Triticum
Fermentation
cooking
freezing
fermentation
Bifidobacterium
short chain fatty acids
butyrates
boiling
propionates
intestinal microorganisms
Water
Volatile Fatty Acids
Butyrates

Keywords

  • Butyrate
  • Digestion
  • Gut health
  • Propionate
  • Short chain fatty acids
  • Starch retrogradation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

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title = "Repeated cooking and freezing of whole wheat flour increases resistant starch with beneficial impacts on in vitro fecal fermentation properties",
abstract = "Resistant starch (RS) has shown benefits to gastrointestinal health, but it is present in only small amounts in most grain-based foods. The purpose of this study was to increase RS in whole wheat flour to improve its potential health benefits. Zero to 7 cycles of cooking (20 min, boiling water) and freezing (-18 °C, 23 h) of whole wheat flour in water (1:15 {\%}w/v) were performed. Increasing cooking-freezing cycles increased RS from 1.03 to 8.07{\%} during in vitro starch digestion. During in vitro fecal fermentation, increasing cooking-freezing cycles increased short chain fatty acids, mainly propionate. Increases in butyrate were also noted during the first 8 h of fermentation. All flours resulted in significant increases in Bifidobacterium of >0.5 log during fermentation compared to baseline. Thus, even modest increases in the RS content of whole wheat flour modulated the metabolic activity of gut microbiota to increase production of beneficial metabolites.",
keywords = "Butyrate, Digestion, Gut health, Propionate, Short chain fatty acids, Starch retrogradation",
author = "Arcila, {Jennifer A.} and Rose, {Devin J.}",
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AU - Arcila, Jennifer A.

AU - Rose, Devin J.

PY - 2015/1/1

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N2 - Resistant starch (RS) has shown benefits to gastrointestinal health, but it is present in only small amounts in most grain-based foods. The purpose of this study was to increase RS in whole wheat flour to improve its potential health benefits. Zero to 7 cycles of cooking (20 min, boiling water) and freezing (-18 °C, 23 h) of whole wheat flour in water (1:15 %w/v) were performed. Increasing cooking-freezing cycles increased RS from 1.03 to 8.07% during in vitro starch digestion. During in vitro fecal fermentation, increasing cooking-freezing cycles increased short chain fatty acids, mainly propionate. Increases in butyrate were also noted during the first 8 h of fermentation. All flours resulted in significant increases in Bifidobacterium of >0.5 log during fermentation compared to baseline. Thus, even modest increases in the RS content of whole wheat flour modulated the metabolic activity of gut microbiota to increase production of beneficial metabolites.

AB - Resistant starch (RS) has shown benefits to gastrointestinal health, but it is present in only small amounts in most grain-based foods. The purpose of this study was to increase RS in whole wheat flour to improve its potential health benefits. Zero to 7 cycles of cooking (20 min, boiling water) and freezing (-18 °C, 23 h) of whole wheat flour in water (1:15 %w/v) were performed. Increasing cooking-freezing cycles increased RS from 1.03 to 8.07% during in vitro starch digestion. During in vitro fecal fermentation, increasing cooking-freezing cycles increased short chain fatty acids, mainly propionate. Increases in butyrate were also noted during the first 8 h of fermentation. All flours resulted in significant increases in Bifidobacterium of >0.5 log during fermentation compared to baseline. Thus, even modest increases in the RS content of whole wheat flour modulated the metabolic activity of gut microbiota to increase production of beneficial metabolites.

KW - Butyrate

KW - Digestion

KW - Gut health

KW - Propionate

KW - Short chain fatty acids

KW - Starch retrogradation

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