Removal of TNT and RDX from water and soil using iron metal

L. S. Hundal, J. Singh, E. L. Bier, P. J. Shea, S. D. Comfort, W. L. Powers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

113 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Contaminated water and soil at active or abandoned munitions plants is a serious problem since these compounds pose risks to human health and can be toxic to aquatic and terrestrial life. Our objective was to determine if zero-valent iron (Fe0) could be used to promote remediation of water and soil contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahyro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). As little as 1% Fe0 (w/v) removed 70 mg TNT litre-1 from aqueous solution within 8 h and removed 32 mg RDX litre-1 within 96 h. Treating slurries (1:5 soil:water) of highly, contaminated soil (5200 mg TNT and 6400 mg RDX kg-1 soil) from the former Nebraska Ordnance Plant (NOP) with 10% Fe0 (w/w soil) reduced CH3CN-extractable TNT and RDX concentrations below USEPA remediation goals (17.2 mg TNT and 5.8 mg RDX kg-1). Sequential treatment of a TNT-contaminated solution (70 mg TNT litre-1 spiked with 14C-TNT) with Fe0 (5% w/v) followed by H2O2 1% v/v) completely destroyed TNT and removed about 94% of the 14C from solution, 48% of which was mineralized to 14CO2 within 8 h. Fe0-treated TNT also was more susceptible to biological mineralization. Our observations indicate that Fe0 alone, Fe0 followed by H2O2, or Fe0 in combination with biotic treatment can be used for effective remediation of munitions-contaminated water and soil.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)55-64
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Volume97
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 20 1997

Fingerprint

Trinitrotoluene
trinitrotoluene
Soil
Iron
Metals
Soils
iron
Water
metal
Remediation
soil
water
remediation
Ordnance
Slurries
cyclonite
removal
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Poisons
triazine

Keywords

  • Munitions
  • Reduction
  • Remediation
  • Sorption
  • Zero-valent iron

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Removal of TNT and RDX from water and soil using iron metal. / Hundal, L. S.; Singh, J.; Bier, E. L.; Shea, P. J.; Comfort, S. D.; Powers, W. L.

In: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 97, No. 1-2, 20.11.1997, p. 55-64.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hundal, L. S. ; Singh, J. ; Bier, E. L. ; Shea, P. J. ; Comfort, S. D. ; Powers, W. L. / Removal of TNT and RDX from water and soil using iron metal. In: Environmental Pollution. 1997 ; Vol. 97, No. 1-2. pp. 55-64.
@article{3adbbea02ca14483bcd62c9459096068,
title = "Removal of TNT and RDX from water and soil using iron metal",
abstract = "Contaminated water and soil at active or abandoned munitions plants is a serious problem since these compounds pose risks to human health and can be toxic to aquatic and terrestrial life. Our objective was to determine if zero-valent iron (Fe0) could be used to promote remediation of water and soil contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahyro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). As little as 1{\%} Fe0 (w/v) removed 70 mg TNT litre-1 from aqueous solution within 8 h and removed 32 mg RDX litre-1 within 96 h. Treating slurries (1:5 soil:water) of highly, contaminated soil (5200 mg TNT and 6400 mg RDX kg-1 soil) from the former Nebraska Ordnance Plant (NOP) with 10{\%} Fe0 (w/w soil) reduced CH3CN-extractable TNT and RDX concentrations below USEPA remediation goals (17.2 mg TNT and 5.8 mg RDX kg-1). Sequential treatment of a TNT-contaminated solution (70 mg TNT litre-1 spiked with 14C-TNT) with Fe0 (5{\%} w/v) followed by H2O2 1{\%} v/v) completely destroyed TNT and removed about 94{\%} of the 14C from solution, 48{\%} of which was mineralized to 14CO2 within 8 h. Fe0-treated TNT also was more susceptible to biological mineralization. Our observations indicate that Fe0 alone, Fe0 followed by H2O2, or Fe0 in combination with biotic treatment can be used for effective remediation of munitions-contaminated water and soil.",
keywords = "Munitions, Reduction, Remediation, Sorption, Zero-valent iron",
author = "Hundal, {L. S.} and J. Singh and Bier, {E. L.} and Shea, {P. J.} and Comfort, {S. D.} and Powers, {W. L.}",
year = "1997",
month = "11",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1016/S0269-7491(97)00081-X",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "97",
pages = "55--64",
journal = "Environmental Pollution",
issn = "0269-7491",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "1-2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Removal of TNT and RDX from water and soil using iron metal

AU - Hundal, L. S.

AU - Singh, J.

AU - Bier, E. L.

AU - Shea, P. J.

AU - Comfort, S. D.

AU - Powers, W. L.

PY - 1997/11/20

Y1 - 1997/11/20

N2 - Contaminated water and soil at active or abandoned munitions plants is a serious problem since these compounds pose risks to human health and can be toxic to aquatic and terrestrial life. Our objective was to determine if zero-valent iron (Fe0) could be used to promote remediation of water and soil contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahyro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). As little as 1% Fe0 (w/v) removed 70 mg TNT litre-1 from aqueous solution within 8 h and removed 32 mg RDX litre-1 within 96 h. Treating slurries (1:5 soil:water) of highly, contaminated soil (5200 mg TNT and 6400 mg RDX kg-1 soil) from the former Nebraska Ordnance Plant (NOP) with 10% Fe0 (w/w soil) reduced CH3CN-extractable TNT and RDX concentrations below USEPA remediation goals (17.2 mg TNT and 5.8 mg RDX kg-1). Sequential treatment of a TNT-contaminated solution (70 mg TNT litre-1 spiked with 14C-TNT) with Fe0 (5% w/v) followed by H2O2 1% v/v) completely destroyed TNT and removed about 94% of the 14C from solution, 48% of which was mineralized to 14CO2 within 8 h. Fe0-treated TNT also was more susceptible to biological mineralization. Our observations indicate that Fe0 alone, Fe0 followed by H2O2, or Fe0 in combination with biotic treatment can be used for effective remediation of munitions-contaminated water and soil.

AB - Contaminated water and soil at active or abandoned munitions plants is a serious problem since these compounds pose risks to human health and can be toxic to aquatic and terrestrial life. Our objective was to determine if zero-valent iron (Fe0) could be used to promote remediation of water and soil contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahyro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). As little as 1% Fe0 (w/v) removed 70 mg TNT litre-1 from aqueous solution within 8 h and removed 32 mg RDX litre-1 within 96 h. Treating slurries (1:5 soil:water) of highly, contaminated soil (5200 mg TNT and 6400 mg RDX kg-1 soil) from the former Nebraska Ordnance Plant (NOP) with 10% Fe0 (w/w soil) reduced CH3CN-extractable TNT and RDX concentrations below USEPA remediation goals (17.2 mg TNT and 5.8 mg RDX kg-1). Sequential treatment of a TNT-contaminated solution (70 mg TNT litre-1 spiked with 14C-TNT) with Fe0 (5% w/v) followed by H2O2 1% v/v) completely destroyed TNT and removed about 94% of the 14C from solution, 48% of which was mineralized to 14CO2 within 8 h. Fe0-treated TNT also was more susceptible to biological mineralization. Our observations indicate that Fe0 alone, Fe0 followed by H2O2, or Fe0 in combination with biotic treatment can be used for effective remediation of munitions-contaminated water and soil.

KW - Munitions

KW - Reduction

KW - Remediation

KW - Sorption

KW - Zero-valent iron

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0030691014&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0030691014&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0269-7491(97)00081-X

DO - 10.1016/S0269-7491(97)00081-X

M3 - Article

C2 - 15093378

AN - SCOPUS:0030691014

VL - 97

SP - 55

EP - 64

JO - Environmental Pollution

JF - Environmental Pollution

SN - 0269-7491

IS - 1-2

ER -