Religiosity, values, and horizontal and vertical individualism—collectivism: A study of turkey, the united states, and the philippines

Cem Safak Cukur, Maria Rosario T. De Guzman, Gustavo Carlo

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97 Scopus citations


The authors examined the links between two dimensions that have been useful in understanding cross-cultural differences and similarities, namely, individualism-collectivism (I-C) and value orientations. The authors examined the relations and parallels between the two variables by directly relating them and examining the patterns of relations that both have with a third variable, religiosity. Participants were 475 college students from the Philippines, the United States, and Turkey who responded to measures of horizontal and vertical I-C, value orientations, and religiosity. The authors found partial support for the parallels between I-C and value types, particularly for collectivism and conservative values. Moreover, religiosity was associated positively with conservative values and collectivism, across all three cultures. The authors found individualism to also relate to openness-to-change values, though the patterns were not as consistent as those that they found between collectivism and conservation. Differences and similarities emerged in links of I-C-values to religiosity across the three samples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)613-634
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Social Psychology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2004



  • Collectivism
  • Individualism
  • Religiosity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology

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