Reliability and relationships among handgrip strength, leg extensor strength and power, and balance in older men

Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins, Samuel L. Buckner, Haley C. Bergstrom, Kristen C. Cochrane, Jacob A. Goldsmith, Terry J. Housh, Glen O. Johnson, Richard J. Schmidt, Joel T. Cramer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To quantify the reliability of isometric leg extension torque (LEMVC), rate of torque development (LERTD), isometric handgrip force (HGMVC) and RFD (HGRFD), isokinetic leg extension torque and power at 1.05rad·s-1 and 3.14rad·s-1; and explore relationships among strength, power, and balance in older men. Methods: Sixteen older men completed 3 isometric handgrips, 3 isometric leg extensions, and 3 isokinetic leg extensions at 1.05rad·s-1 and 3.14rad·s-1 during two visits. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), ICC confidence intervals (95% CI), coefficients of variation (CVs), and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. Results: LERTD demonstrated no reliability. The CVs for LERTD and HGRFD were ≤23.26%. HGMVC wasn't related to leg extension torque or power, or balance (r=0.14-0.47; p>0.05). However, moderate to strong relationships were found among isokinetic leg extension torque at 1.05rad·s-1 and 3.14rad·s-1, leg extension mean power at 1.05rad·s-1, and functional reach (r=0.51-0.95; p≤0.05). Conclusions: LERTD and HGRFD weren't reliable and shouldn't be used as outcome variables in older men. Handgrip strength may not be an appropriate surrogate for lower body strength, power, or balance. Instead, perhaps handgrip strength should only be used to describe upper body strength or functionality, which may compliment isokinetic assessments of lower body strength, which were reliable and related to balance. •Leg extension RTD and handgrip RFD were unreliable in older men.•Handgrip strength was not related to leg extensor strength, power, or balance.•Isokinetic leg extension strength and power were reliable and related to balance.•Handgrip strength may not be an appropriate surrogate to lower body muscle function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-50
Number of pages4
JournalExperimental Gerontology
Volume58
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2014

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Torque
Leg
Muscle
Confidence Intervals
Muscles

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Functionality
  • Intraclass correlation coefficient
  • Power
  • Rate of force development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Aging
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Endocrinology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Reliability and relationships among handgrip strength, leg extensor strength and power, and balance in older men. / Jenkins, Nathaniel D.M.; Buckner, Samuel L.; Bergstrom, Haley C.; Cochrane, Kristen C.; Goldsmith, Jacob A.; Housh, Terry J.; Johnson, Glen O.; Schmidt, Richard J.; Cramer, Joel T.

In: Experimental Gerontology, Vol. 58, 10.2014, p. 47-50.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jenkins, NDM, Buckner, SL, Bergstrom, HC, Cochrane, KC, Goldsmith, JA, Housh, TJ, Johnson, GO, Schmidt, RJ & Cramer, JT 2014, 'Reliability and relationships among handgrip strength, leg extensor strength and power, and balance in older men', Experimental Gerontology, vol. 58, pp. 47-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2014.07.007
Jenkins, Nathaniel D.M. ; Buckner, Samuel L. ; Bergstrom, Haley C. ; Cochrane, Kristen C. ; Goldsmith, Jacob A. ; Housh, Terry J. ; Johnson, Glen O. ; Schmidt, Richard J. ; Cramer, Joel T. / Reliability and relationships among handgrip strength, leg extensor strength and power, and balance in older men. In: Experimental Gerontology. 2014 ; Vol. 58. pp. 47-50.
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abstract = "Purpose: To quantify the reliability of isometric leg extension torque (LEMVC), rate of torque development (LERTD), isometric handgrip force (HGMVC) and RFD (HGRFD), isokinetic leg extension torque and power at 1.05rad·s-1 and 3.14rad·s-1; and explore relationships among strength, power, and balance in older men. Methods: Sixteen older men completed 3 isometric handgrips, 3 isometric leg extensions, and 3 isokinetic leg extensions at 1.05rad·s-1 and 3.14rad·s-1 during two visits. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), ICC confidence intervals (95{\%} CI), coefficients of variation (CVs), and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. Results: LERTD demonstrated no reliability. The CVs for LERTD and HGRFD were ≤23.26{\%}. HGMVC wasn't related to leg extension torque or power, or balance (r=0.14-0.47; p>0.05). However, moderate to strong relationships were found among isokinetic leg extension torque at 1.05rad·s-1 and 3.14rad·s-1, leg extension mean power at 1.05rad·s-1, and functional reach (r=0.51-0.95; p≤0.05). Conclusions: LERTD and HGRFD weren't reliable and shouldn't be used as outcome variables in older men. Handgrip strength may not be an appropriate surrogate for lower body strength, power, or balance. Instead, perhaps handgrip strength should only be used to describe upper body strength or functionality, which may compliment isokinetic assessments of lower body strength, which were reliable and related to balance. •Leg extension RTD and handgrip RFD were unreliable in older men.•Handgrip strength was not related to leg extensor strength, power, or balance.•Isokinetic leg extension strength and power were reliable and related to balance.•Handgrip strength may not be an appropriate surrogate to lower body muscle function.",
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author = "Jenkins, {Nathaniel D.M.} and Buckner, {Samuel L.} and Bergstrom, {Haley C.} and Cochrane, {Kristen C.} and Goldsmith, {Jacob A.} and Housh, {Terry J.} and Johnson, {Glen O.} and Schmidt, {Richard J.} and Cramer, {Joel T.}",
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T1 - Reliability and relationships among handgrip strength, leg extensor strength and power, and balance in older men

AU - Jenkins, Nathaniel D.M.

AU - Buckner, Samuel L.

AU - Bergstrom, Haley C.

AU - Cochrane, Kristen C.

AU - Goldsmith, Jacob A.

AU - Housh, Terry J.

AU - Johnson, Glen O.

AU - Schmidt, Richard J.

AU - Cramer, Joel T.

PY - 2014/10

Y1 - 2014/10

N2 - Purpose: To quantify the reliability of isometric leg extension torque (LEMVC), rate of torque development (LERTD), isometric handgrip force (HGMVC) and RFD (HGRFD), isokinetic leg extension torque and power at 1.05rad·s-1 and 3.14rad·s-1; and explore relationships among strength, power, and balance in older men. Methods: Sixteen older men completed 3 isometric handgrips, 3 isometric leg extensions, and 3 isokinetic leg extensions at 1.05rad·s-1 and 3.14rad·s-1 during two visits. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), ICC confidence intervals (95% CI), coefficients of variation (CVs), and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. Results: LERTD demonstrated no reliability. The CVs for LERTD and HGRFD were ≤23.26%. HGMVC wasn't related to leg extension torque or power, or balance (r=0.14-0.47; p>0.05). However, moderate to strong relationships were found among isokinetic leg extension torque at 1.05rad·s-1 and 3.14rad·s-1, leg extension mean power at 1.05rad·s-1, and functional reach (r=0.51-0.95; p≤0.05). Conclusions: LERTD and HGRFD weren't reliable and shouldn't be used as outcome variables in older men. Handgrip strength may not be an appropriate surrogate for lower body strength, power, or balance. Instead, perhaps handgrip strength should only be used to describe upper body strength or functionality, which may compliment isokinetic assessments of lower body strength, which were reliable and related to balance. •Leg extension RTD and handgrip RFD were unreliable in older men.•Handgrip strength was not related to leg extensor strength, power, or balance.•Isokinetic leg extension strength and power were reliable and related to balance.•Handgrip strength may not be an appropriate surrogate to lower body muscle function.

AB - Purpose: To quantify the reliability of isometric leg extension torque (LEMVC), rate of torque development (LERTD), isometric handgrip force (HGMVC) and RFD (HGRFD), isokinetic leg extension torque and power at 1.05rad·s-1 and 3.14rad·s-1; and explore relationships among strength, power, and balance in older men. Methods: Sixteen older men completed 3 isometric handgrips, 3 isometric leg extensions, and 3 isokinetic leg extensions at 1.05rad·s-1 and 3.14rad·s-1 during two visits. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), ICC confidence intervals (95% CI), coefficients of variation (CVs), and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. Results: LERTD demonstrated no reliability. The CVs for LERTD and HGRFD were ≤23.26%. HGMVC wasn't related to leg extension torque or power, or balance (r=0.14-0.47; p>0.05). However, moderate to strong relationships were found among isokinetic leg extension torque at 1.05rad·s-1 and 3.14rad·s-1, leg extension mean power at 1.05rad·s-1, and functional reach (r=0.51-0.95; p≤0.05). Conclusions: LERTD and HGRFD weren't reliable and shouldn't be used as outcome variables in older men. Handgrip strength may not be an appropriate surrogate for lower body strength, power, or balance. Instead, perhaps handgrip strength should only be used to describe upper body strength or functionality, which may compliment isokinetic assessments of lower body strength, which were reliable and related to balance. •Leg extension RTD and handgrip RFD were unreliable in older men.•Handgrip strength was not related to leg extensor strength, power, or balance.•Isokinetic leg extension strength and power were reliable and related to balance.•Handgrip strength may not be an appropriate surrogate to lower body muscle function.

KW - Aging

KW - Functionality

KW - Intraclass correlation coefficient

KW - Power

KW - Rate of force development

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