Relative contributions of the thalamus and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex

Bo Xu, Hong Zheng, Kaushik P Patel

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10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is induced by stimulating the cardiac sympathetic afferents, which evokes increases in sympathetic outflow and arterial pressure. In the present study, we attempted to identify the contribution of thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei involved in the CSAR. First, we observed that there was an increase in the number of c-Fos-labeled cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (190 ± 18 vs. 101 ± 15; P < 0.05), the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) (239 ± 23 vs. 151 ± 15; P < 0.05), and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) (92 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 6; P < 0.05) following epicardial application of bradykinin (BK) compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Second, using extracellular single-unit recording, we found 25% of spontaneously active neurons in the thalamus were stimulated by epicardial application of BK or capsaicin in intact rats. However, 24% of spontaneously active neurons in the thalamus were still stimulated by epicardial application of BK or capsaicin despite vagotomy and sinoaortic denervation. None of the neurons in the thalamus responded to baroreflex changes in arterial pressure, induced by intravenous injection of phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside. The CSAR was inhibited by microinjection of muscimol or lidocaine into the PVN. However, it was not inhibited or blocked by microinjection of muscimol or lidocaine into the thalamus. Taken together, these data suggest that the thalamus, while activated, is not critical for autonomic adjustments in response to activation of the CSAR. On the other hand, the PVN is critically involved in the central pathway of the CSAR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume305
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2013

Fingerprint

Midline Thalamic Nuclei
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Reflex
Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus
Bradykinin
Muscimol
Capsaicin
Microinjections
Lidocaine
Neurons
Arterial Pressure
Mediodorsal Thalamic Nucleus
Social Adjustment
Thalamic Nuclei
Baroreflex
Vagotomy
Nitroprusside
Phenylephrine
Denervation

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular
  • Paraventricular nucleus
  • Sympathetic activity
  • Thalamus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "Relative contributions of the thalamus and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex",
abstract = "The cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is induced by stimulating the cardiac sympathetic afferents, which evokes increases in sympathetic outflow and arterial pressure. In the present study, we attempted to identify the contribution of thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei involved in the CSAR. First, we observed that there was an increase in the number of c-Fos-labeled cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (190 ± 18 vs. 101 ± 15; P < 0.05), the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) (239 ± 23 vs. 151 ± 15; P < 0.05), and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) (92 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 6; P < 0.05) following epicardial application of bradykinin (BK) compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Second, using extracellular single-unit recording, we found 25{\%} of spontaneously active neurons in the thalamus were stimulated by epicardial application of BK or capsaicin in intact rats. However, 24{\%} of spontaneously active neurons in the thalamus were still stimulated by epicardial application of BK or capsaicin despite vagotomy and sinoaortic denervation. None of the neurons in the thalamus responded to baroreflex changes in arterial pressure, induced by intravenous injection of phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside. The CSAR was inhibited by microinjection of muscimol or lidocaine into the PVN. However, it was not inhibited or blocked by microinjection of muscimol or lidocaine into the thalamus. Taken together, these data suggest that the thalamus, while activated, is not critical for autonomic adjustments in response to activation of the CSAR. On the other hand, the PVN is critically involved in the central pathway of the CSAR.",
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T1 - Relative contributions of the thalamus and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex

AU - Xu, Bo

AU - Zheng, Hong

AU - Patel, Kaushik P

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N2 - The cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is induced by stimulating the cardiac sympathetic afferents, which evokes increases in sympathetic outflow and arterial pressure. In the present study, we attempted to identify the contribution of thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei involved in the CSAR. First, we observed that there was an increase in the number of c-Fos-labeled cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (190 ± 18 vs. 101 ± 15; P < 0.05), the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) (239 ± 23 vs. 151 ± 15; P < 0.05), and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) (92 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 6; P < 0.05) following epicardial application of bradykinin (BK) compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Second, using extracellular single-unit recording, we found 25% of spontaneously active neurons in the thalamus were stimulated by epicardial application of BK or capsaicin in intact rats. However, 24% of spontaneously active neurons in the thalamus were still stimulated by epicardial application of BK or capsaicin despite vagotomy and sinoaortic denervation. None of the neurons in the thalamus responded to baroreflex changes in arterial pressure, induced by intravenous injection of phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside. The CSAR was inhibited by microinjection of muscimol or lidocaine into the PVN. However, it was not inhibited or blocked by microinjection of muscimol or lidocaine into the thalamus. Taken together, these data suggest that the thalamus, while activated, is not critical for autonomic adjustments in response to activation of the CSAR. On the other hand, the PVN is critically involved in the central pathway of the CSAR.

AB - The cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is induced by stimulating the cardiac sympathetic afferents, which evokes increases in sympathetic outflow and arterial pressure. In the present study, we attempted to identify the contribution of thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei involved in the CSAR. First, we observed that there was an increase in the number of c-Fos-labeled cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (190 ± 18 vs. 101 ± 15; P < 0.05), the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) (239 ± 23 vs. 151 ± 15; P < 0.05), and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) (92 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 6; P < 0.05) following epicardial application of bradykinin (BK) compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Second, using extracellular single-unit recording, we found 25% of spontaneously active neurons in the thalamus were stimulated by epicardial application of BK or capsaicin in intact rats. However, 24% of spontaneously active neurons in the thalamus were still stimulated by epicardial application of BK or capsaicin despite vagotomy and sinoaortic denervation. None of the neurons in the thalamus responded to baroreflex changes in arterial pressure, induced by intravenous injection of phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside. The CSAR was inhibited by microinjection of muscimol or lidocaine into the PVN. However, it was not inhibited or blocked by microinjection of muscimol or lidocaine into the thalamus. Taken together, these data suggest that the thalamus, while activated, is not critical for autonomic adjustments in response to activation of the CSAR. On the other hand, the PVN is critically involved in the central pathway of the CSAR.

KW - Cardiovascular

KW - Paraventricular nucleus

KW - Sympathetic activity

KW - Thalamus

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JO - American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology

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