Relative contributions of strength, anthropometric, and body composition characteristics to estimated propulsive force in young male swimmers

Kristen C. Cochrane, Terry J. Housh, Cory M. Smith, Ethan C. Hill, Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins, Glen O. Johnson, Dona J. Housh, Richard J. Schmidt, Joel T. Cramer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cochrane, KC, Housh, TJ, Smith, CM, Hill, EC, Jenkins, NDM, Johnson, GO, Housh, DJ, Schmidt, RJ, and Cramer, JT. Relative contributions of strength, anthropometric, and body composition characteristics to estimated propulsive force in young male swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 29(6): 1473-1479, 2015-The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of isokinetic forearm flexion (FLX) and extension (EXT) peak torque (PT) at 180°·s-1, height (HT), percent body fat (%BF), and fat-free mass (FFM) to the prediction of estimated propulsive force (EPF) and which of these variables should be a focus of training in young male swimmers. Thirty young male swimmers (mean age ± SD 12.4 ± 2.7 years) volunteered for this study. The subjects were members of local swimming clubs who competed in the front crawl. The swimmers were measured for FLX and EXT PT at 180°·s -1, HT, body mass (BM), arm muscle area (AMA), arm circumference, triceps skinfold, %BF, and FFM. Arm muscle area was used to calculate EPF. Zero-order correlations and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of FLX, EXT, HT, %BF, and FFM to the prediction of EPF. Forearm flexion PT at 180°·s -1, EXT, BM, HT, FFM, AMA, and EPF were significantly intercorrelated (r 0.83-1.00). In addition, 4 variables contributed significantly to the prediction of EPF (standardized regression coefficients FFM [1.00], FLX [0.92], EXT [-0.62], and HT [-0.35]). Percent body fat did not contribute to any of the stepwise models. These findings suggested that age-related increases in HT and FFM, as well as training for increases in FLX and EXT strength may improve propulsive force and swimming performance in young male swimmers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1473-1479
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of strength and conditioning research
Volume29
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 5 2015

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Body Composition
Fats
Torque
Arm
Body Height
Forearm
Muscles
Adipose Tissue
Regression Analysis

Keywords

  • Youth
  • isokinetics
  • performance
  • swimming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Relative contributions of strength, anthropometric, and body composition characteristics to estimated propulsive force in young male swimmers. / Cochrane, Kristen C.; Housh, Terry J.; Smith, Cory M.; Hill, Ethan C.; Jenkins, Nathaniel D.M.; Johnson, Glen O.; Housh, Dona J.; Schmidt, Richard J.; Cramer, Joel T.

In: Journal of strength and conditioning research, Vol. 29, No. 6, 05.06.2015, p. 1473-1479.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cochrane, Kristen C. ; Housh, Terry J. ; Smith, Cory M. ; Hill, Ethan C. ; Jenkins, Nathaniel D.M. ; Johnson, Glen O. ; Housh, Dona J. ; Schmidt, Richard J. ; Cramer, Joel T. / Relative contributions of strength, anthropometric, and body composition characteristics to estimated propulsive force in young male swimmers. In: Journal of strength and conditioning research. 2015 ; Vol. 29, No. 6. pp. 1473-1479.
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abstract = "Cochrane, KC, Housh, TJ, Smith, CM, Hill, EC, Jenkins, NDM, Johnson, GO, Housh, DJ, Schmidt, RJ, and Cramer, JT. Relative contributions of strength, anthropometric, and body composition characteristics to estimated propulsive force in young male swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 29(6): 1473-1479, 2015-The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of isokinetic forearm flexion (FLX) and extension (EXT) peak torque (PT) at 180°·s-1, height (HT), percent body fat ({\%}BF), and fat-free mass (FFM) to the prediction of estimated propulsive force (EPF) and which of these variables should be a focus of training in young male swimmers. Thirty young male swimmers (mean age ± SD 12.4 ± 2.7 years) volunteered for this study. The subjects were members of local swimming clubs who competed in the front crawl. The swimmers were measured for FLX and EXT PT at 180°·s -1, HT, body mass (BM), arm muscle area (AMA), arm circumference, triceps skinfold, {\%}BF, and FFM. Arm muscle area was used to calculate EPF. Zero-order correlations and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of FLX, EXT, HT, {\%}BF, and FFM to the prediction of EPF. Forearm flexion PT at 180°·s -1, EXT, BM, HT, FFM, AMA, and EPF were significantly intercorrelated (r 0.83-1.00). In addition, 4 variables contributed significantly to the prediction of EPF (standardized regression coefficients FFM [1.00], FLX [0.92], EXT [-0.62], and HT [-0.35]). Percent body fat did not contribute to any of the stepwise models. These findings suggested that age-related increases in HT and FFM, as well as training for increases in FLX and EXT strength may improve propulsive force and swimming performance in young male swimmers.",
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