Regulation and expression of transforming growth factor type-ß during early mammalian development

David Lee Kelly, Wendy J. Campbell, Jay Tiesman, A Angie Rizzino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Scopus citations


We have examined the effect of differentiation on the expression of different members of the transforming growth factor type-beta (TGF-β) family using embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells and early mammalian embryos. We determined that TGF-β activity increases approximately 25-100% when the mouse EC cell line, F9, is induced to differentiate with retinoic acid (RA). Interestingly, the increased TGF-β activity reflects the induction of TGF-β2 secretion following differentiation of both F9 EC cells and the human EC cell line, NT2/D1. Using the technique of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we have verified that differentiation induces the expression of TGF-β2 as well as a distant member of the TGF-β family, Vgr-1. Transcripts for TGF-β2 and Vgr-1 were readily detected in the differentiated cells of F9 and PC-13 but not in their undifferentiated counterparts. Moreover, TGF-β2 mRNA was readily detected in NT2/D1 cells following differentiation. In addition, transcripts for TGF-β2 were detected by RT-PCR in mouse morulae, preimplantation blastocysts and cultured blastocysts. Based on the data presented, it appears that the expression of both TGF-β2 and Vgr-1 is closely associated with the induction of differentiation during early development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)227-242
Number of pages16
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 1990



  • embryonal carcinoma cells
  • mammalian embryogenesis
  • polymerase chain reaction
  • transforming growth factor type-beta

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

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