Reconceptualizing teacherstudent relationships: Applicability of the working alliance within classroom contexts

Jessica R. Toste, Nancy L. Heath, Carol Mc Donald Connor, Peng Peng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


Relationships with teachers have been found to be particularly salient for elementary-age students, as they relate to successful adjustment to school. The construct of working alliance reconceptualizes traditional definitions of relationship to consider elements of emotional connection, as well as the collaboration central to the working relationship between two individuals. The current study sought to examine the construct validity of the Classroom Working Alliance Inventory (CWAI). Multilevel confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor model, representing the emotional and collaborative elements of relationship. These findings provide evidence for the validity of the construct of classroom working alliance in capturing the working relationship between teacher and student.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)30-48
Number of pages19
JournalElementary School Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2015


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

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